ISSN 2414-1143


2016. N 4

Integrated problems of ecology and safety

Chaika A. Russian Federation state security as an object of research / annotation

Chaika Alexander – candidate of philosophy, associate professor. Institute of philosophy and social-political science. Southern federal university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

Security – is an important condition of any system existence. State security can be defined as security condition of political system, state agencies, state territorial integrity, as well as sovereignty from internal and external threats. The basic elements of informative side state security are considered: subjects and objects of state security; state security threats; system, forces and supporting means of state security. State is the basic subject of state security. Objects of state security are no more than, as basic characteristics of state. Nowadays in theoretic-juridical science accepted the unite conception, in accordance with which the state is the society political organization based on public law, possessing such characteristics, as territory, supremacy inside the country and independence in foreign affairs (sovereignty), and also management apparatus separated from the rest society. The basic objects (they are also the basic directions) of state security are considered in the article: a) state (constitutional) system; b) state agencies; c) state sovereignty; d) state territorial integrity. State security threats are related to the most important elements of state security informative side. Security threat is determined as direct or circumstantial possibility of endamagement to constitutional laws, freedoms, worthy quality and living standard of citizens, sovereignty and territorial integrity, sustainability of Russian Federation, defense and security of state in the strategy of Russia national security till 2020. Several accepted classifications of national security threats are represented: according to state affiliation of danger source, forming the threat; according to the formation degree; depending on the character of threats, determined by their source and specificity; according to the spheres of human activity; according to the degree of subjective perception; in relation to human activity; according to the objects of national security. The conception of state security supporting system is considered, the basic values are identified. Considering the existing legislation in Russian Federation the organs of legislative, executive and judicial authorities, state, social and other organizations and associations, citizens, participating in security supplying in obedience to the law, and also legislation, regulating relations in the sphere of security, force and security safeguards form the state security supporting system. As any security supplying system the system of state security has subject, realizing certain functions, and object which security should be supplied. The basic functions of state security supporting system, forces and means of it realization are represented. Realization of state security is realized on the basis of organs power differentiation of legislative, executive and judicial authorities in the given sphere. One considered the basic directions of state security supplying in Russian Federation, classification of threat types and system of the country security supplying under the modern conditions that gives more structured representation about the research subject.

Key words: security, state security, state security threats, state security organs, state security functions, system, forces and means of state security.

Yurchenko N. Interaction and development problems of the Russian Federation subjects in the Black Sea region: anti-crisis political-administrative technologies / annotation

Yurchenko Natalya – candidate of political study, associate professor. Kuban state university. Krasnodar, Russian Federation.

The global economic and political dynamics of sets certain parameters of social motivation to develop adaptive models of economic growth, based on the constructed anti-crisis policy and administrative technologies, which are the subject of this research. The change of technological orders determines certain stages of formation of the relevant political and administrative practices to ensure the safety and long-term development of the southern regions of the country, taking into account their specificity. The black sea region has always attracted the attention of various geopolitical players, as a zone of their special interests. For many years the region was unstable and caused disputes between neighboring States. Situated between Europe, Russia and the countries of the Middle East, this region is a buffer zone between different cultures and civilizations, which in turn carry the acute problems of the modern world. In the last decade, the black sea region acquires increasing importance as the intersection of the national interests of the leading regional powers, as well as such major global players as the US and EU. The reason for attention to this region should be highlighted, first and foremost, the transit value in a given territory are important transport routes connecting the West with the rich hydrocarbons of Central Asia and Transcaucasia. It should be emphasized that the present geopolitical situation demands that we develop not only new theories, but also tools that are able to provide timely measures of optimization. Moreover, it is necessary to note the special relevance of this problem for the South of Russia and especially the Russian black sea coast, due to its geostrategic location, natural landscape, as well as the economic importance and social and cultural diversity. At the present stage to ensure security in the region requires the development of effective anti-crisis political-administrative technologies, and building a United and interdependent strategies of development of territories, the definition of criteria and approaches to the study and diagnosis of what is happening in the region and the world in General contradictory processes.

Key words: crisis management, technology, politics, administration, the Black Sea region, integration processes and regional security.

Zubareva S. Integratedsafety problems of “Y” generation in Black Sea region / annotation

Zubareva Svetlana – post-graduate student. Don state technical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

Security problem of the generation “Y” in Russia and in the countries of the Black Sea region have a special actuality in connection with alterations, nowadays taking place in the world geopolitical situation. Considering the character of occurrent events and their consequences, directly influencing on population employable part, it is necessary to con-sider possible threats and risks, which the young generation representatives can be sub-jected. The influence of occurred events in the values formation context of young people generation first was considered by the American sociologists Neil Howe and William Strauss in 1991. Under the “Y” population they understood people, born from 1984 to 2003, characterized by deep involvement into digital technologies. Nowadays the given generation of young people is in the frustration state in conse-quence of discrepancy of wishes to existing possibilities, among which are available edu-cation, privileged accommodation, financial independence, presence of high-paying job. In the period of economic stability the problems can be solved and soften, then in connection with the economic crises in Russia, unstable economic situation, inflation they are considerably complicated. The given mental condition is capable to lead to undesirable consequences, negative for the society in whole. An individual begins to be dangerous not only for himself, but also for the surrounding people, losing the moral orientations under the conditions of traditional norms and values dithering. The youth as a transit and unstable group is mainly defenceless in front of the negative tendencies of modernity. Thus, gradually values of labor, freedom, democracy, international tolerance are neutralized. Under that avalanche criminalization of the youth takes place, numerical strength of the young people with social deviations also arouses, such as alcoholism, drug addiction, participation in extreme movements and cyberterrorism. Taking into consideration that the future is depended on the generation “Y” there ap-pears demand in system, regulating comprehensive development of the youth potential. Formation and system effective functioning of the youth social safety of Russia and the Black Sea region countries is necessary in all spheres of the generation “Y” activity. Organization-administrative maintenance creates conditions, contributing to state of a person self-protection, social group, and community from the threats violation of their vital interests, rights, freedoms. The given process is necessary especially in political and socially-economic life for functioning of social, economic, cultural potential and also contributed to international competitive ability supplying and national security fortification. For the recent years the security problems of the young generation are in the focus of scientific community and of various levels authorities. In Russia this is reflected in realization of various social programs, such as juridical consulting, healthy lifestyle promotion, and organization of the youth international interaction, support of voluntary initiatives, assistance in employment, civic engagement increasing, and assistance delivery for the young people in difficult situations. However, in connection with alterations, taking place in the world space and in the countries of the Eastern Europe and North Asia, particularly it is necessary to consider, that the given process is out the frames of one country and requires collegial decision of countries according to the question of the modern youth security of the Black Sea post-Soviet countries.

Key words: generation “Y”, cyberterrorism, security, Eastern Europe, North Asia, Black sear region.

Vergun T. Ecological crisis as civilizational crisis / annotation

Vergun Tatyana – candidate of philosophy, professor assistant. North-Caucasus social institute. Stavropol, Russian Federation.

The question about consciousness ecologization appears to be currently a question about environment preservation from anthropogenic influence of a man on the Earth. Realization of this is possible under the conditions of necessary significance comprehension of ecological culture and ecological consciousness by every person. Ethical and humanistic relations of a man and nature became the historical prerequisite of ecological consciousness formation. Ecological consciousness is, first of all, comprehension of nature defense necessity, and comprehension of anthropogenic effect results. Besides, ecological consciousness is acquirement and comprehension of the fact that every separate man has responsibility for preservation of life in whole on the Earth. Modernity forms the question about transition to the new interaction model, which is called coevolution. The situation, which the mankind got to nowadays reflects and determines the general doctrine crisis of a person consumer view to natural and social resources. Nevertheless common sense forces the mankind to rethinking and comprehension of a sharp necessity of interconnections harmonization in the system “man-nature”. Involving the varied estimations ecological crisis in itself can be interpreted as objective violation in system interaction “man-nature”. The given violation is expressed in the serious anthropogenic pressure to biosphere, including the growth of planet population number, and in natural resources depletion, and equilibration disorder in natural environment. Ecological problematics, by all means, should have philosophical ground, as under the ecological crisis formed conditions it is closely connected with worldview basements alteration. The opinion that from the point of view of philosophical anthropology and culture philosophy ecological problematics arouses interest as some particular case of more general system “artificial-natural” was formed in domestic tradition. New rationality formation through the perspective of ecological values, relations alteration in the system “man-nature”, consciousness ecologization is entirely the problem of philosophical character. The necessity of revelation and grounding of knowledge sphere, connected with ecological problems and searching of the new worldview orientations from the positions of philosophical anthropology and culture philosophy, appeared in the realias of modernity. Emphasizing of anthropic values predominantly influences on culture, science and society in general. The result of this influence is an impact to a person by means of culture and science to the surrounding reality and in consequence of this the significant transformation of the last one. In the foreseeable future people have to realize the ecological problematics, and especially, the understanding process of human survival in general.

Key words: environmental crisis, ecological consciousness, civilizational crisis, environmentalism, axiological paradigm.

Kolosova O., Goncharov V. Socio-environmental monitoring as the indicator of ecological consciousness / annotation

Kolosova Olga – Ph.D. of philosophy, professor. Krasnodar university of Ministry of Inner Affairs of Russian Federation. Krasnodar, Russian Federation.
Goncharov Vadim – Ph.D. of philosophy, professor. Institute of the Humanities of North-Caucasus federal university. Stavropol, Russian Federation.

It has been analyzed the system of social and ecological monitoring, which allows expanding indicator set of characteristics of the state and dynamics of society to the limits covering not only social processes, but all aspects of relationship between society and nature. The system of social and ecological monitoring allows obtaining the sociological information promoting sustainable development of society. It allows to consider in detail socially – ecological processes and the phenomena, quickly to find changes and general tendencies of transformation of such processes and phenomena, to analyze simultaneously all social subjects according to their role in the development of social and ecological processes, to provide use of new methods of environmental and social assessments. Indicator set of characteristics of state and change of society in the course of social and ecological monitoring extends to the limits covering not only social processes, but also all aspects of communications between society and nature. Object of studying of social and ecological monitoring is a society and its life environment. The society loses signs of totality and alignment. It is shown as changeable set of local fragments which are poorly conformed to each other and therefore they comprise variety of scenarios of further development. As perceptible improvement of ecological situation is inseparable from rationalization of economy and growth of social involvement of citizens at the specific level of local community, this level is considered to be optimum for research. At this level features and possibilities of solution of local problems can be considered; its cultural, ethnic and religious features are taken into account, lasting experience of aboriginal population and its tradition is considered, equitable distribution of environmental risk in community is provided. Receiving reliable information about changes in public consciousness, in public orientations, their influence on ecological consciousness of people on extent of their concern in the ecological situation, on ecological activity and factors inducing to this activity is possible only when performing large-scale social and ecological monitoring. Early warning of growth of social tension in regions and in the country in general, formations of the new ecological consciousness corresponding to the modern period of development of world civilization requires studying of public opinion by state bodies, public organizations, parties and political movements, scientists and experts, members of media and education systems. Ecological awareness is a basis of ecological thinking formation. It will allow changing focus of consumer society from thoughtless ruin and exploitation of nature to careful attitude to its resources, understanding of their authentic value. Studying of public opinion on environmental problems by means of mass survey is necessary, but it is insufficient condition of forecasting of people social behavior. When considering public opinion as one of regulators of social behavior in the conditions of social and ecological intensity it is necessary to consider also the possibility of its change under influence, first of all media, rumors, activities of system of ecological education. Value of social and ecological monitoring is that it, except for fixing of changes of public opinion of the population, allows determining efficiency of specific actions for impact on public opinion of such factors as orientation and intensity of mass- media appeals to ecological subject.

Key words: social opinion, ecology, ecological consciousness, mass media, information, orientation.

Biryukova S. Macrozoobenthos communities of littoral part of the Azov sea Taman bay / annotation

Biryukova Svetlana – junior scientific worker. Azov branch of Murmansk naval biological institute of Kolsky scientific center of Russian Academy of Science. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

Monitoring providing and detailed study of macrozoobenthos in Taman bay littoral zone is connected not only with constant changes inside the benthic communities in the region, where ecological minimum are combined for Azov sea and Black sea eurybionts, but also with a person massive activity, in the result of which alteration of bottom silt types takes place in the researched side of Azov sea. The aim of the given work is the irreversible alterations research in the benthic communities of Taman bay littoral zone under the influence of antropogenic factors. Probes, selected in Taman bay in the course of coast expedition in July 2013 served as the material. Total amount of probes comprised 54 quantitative probes of macrozoo-benthos by Petersen bottom-grab with a gripping area of 0,034 m2 in 3-rd replications at 18 stations at the depth to 1,5m. Gathering and processing of probes was conducted ac-cording to standard hydrobiological methods. Macrozoobenthos types were identified with the help of popular determinants. Medium values of numerical strength and biomass at the station are given in the work. Communities are separated according to biomass. The medium values of numerical strength and biomass of macrozoobenthos in the littoral part of Taman bay comprised 7237 exem/m2 and 86 g/m2 accordingly. Total numerical strength and biomass altered from 160 exem/m2 to 23670 exem/m2 and from 0,4g/m2 to 402 g/m2 accordingly. Minimum biomass values are marked at the solid sandy ground and shelly material (Taman bay open part) and marshy sludgy bottom (salt lagoon at the spit Tuzla). High biomasses were connected with wide development of big mussels of Cerastoderma glaucum (Poiret, 1789), Anadara kagoshimensis (Tokunaga, 1906) and Abra segmenta (Récluz, 1843). Seven biocenosis are separated in the littoral part of Taman bay, the most part of which is taken by two (at slimy grounds) communities with dominance of C. glaucum and A. segmenta. Community of Cerastoderma glaucum was met at the sludgy and also sandy grounds with dominant biomass from 32 to 113 g/m2 and from 1 to 34 g/m2 accordingly. Community of Abra segmenta was widespread in salt lagoons at Tuzla and Ruba-nov spits , and in the apex part of Dinskoy Bay with dominant biomass from 3 to 126 g/m2. Community of Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819) is marked at the sandy ground with presence of shelly material (1 g/m2) and at the solid clay with shelly material (138 g/m2). Community of Anadara kagoshimensis was met at the one station (at the sandy ground without plant formation) with numerical strength and dominant biomass of 10 exem/m2 and 122 g/m2 accordingly. Community of Hydrobia acuta A.Costa, 1853 was marked at the slightly silty sandy ground with numerical strength and dominant biomass of 1333 exem/m2 and 1,5 g/m2 ac-cordingly. Community of Ampelisca diadema A.Costa, 1853 was met at the solid sandy ground, covered with thickets Zostera noltii Hornem with numerical strength and biomass of 11220 exem/m2 and 11 g/m2 accordingly. Community of Idothea baltica basteri Audoin, 1827 was met at the slimy ground with water plants and dirty sand with shell material without vegetation with numerical strength and dominant biomass from 660 to 1059 exem/m2 and 14 g/m2 accordingly. In 2013 one marked 90 macrozoobenthos taxons related to 10 types. The most mass groups: Mollusca (Bivalvia, Gastropoda), Annelida (Polychaeta) and Arthropoda (Crustacea).Various macrozoobenthos communities distribution in Taman bay littoral zone at the depth to 1,5m. is connected with mosaic distribution of sandy-shell and sludgy benthal depositions of various grain-size classification composition in the researched area. Siltenduring biocenosis increase is marked (Cerastoderma and Abra) that is considered to be the consequence of Taman bay siltage.

Key words: Taman bay, community, seaside zone, macrozoobenthos, the Azov sea.

Stepanyan O. Macro water plant of the Black sea Abkhazian shelf / annotation

Stepanyan Oleg – candidate of biology, deputy of the chairman of Southern scientific center of Russian Academy of Science. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

Last great algological researches on Abkhazia shelf were conducted in 1960-1970s. In connection with USSR disintegration, war conflict, maritime scientific researches in this region were not realized more than 20 years. In July 2010 South scientific centre RAS for the first time conducted the complex ecosystem researches in the contemporary history of Republic of Abkhazia, the modern estimation of phytobentos condition was one of the challenges. Phytobentos sample taking is conducted in the littoral zone of Abkhazian shelf at the depth of 50m in the borders of work territory. At the row of stations with depths from 10 to 50m sea bottom dredgings were conducted with drag, bottom silt probes were selected with bottom-grab Van Veen, a part of the material was collected at breakwaters. Macro water plants in the soil probes, collected with bottom-grab Van Veen were absent. Drag is appeared to be the most efficient, in the result of several dredging in the point with coordinates of 43º08`09" n.l. and 40º24`09" e.l. with deepness of 34 m, water plants, attached to small boulders, with total mass to 0,5 kg were raised. Among macro water plants the representatives of red water plants – Ceramium, Polysiphonia and brown – Cystosira, Dilophys predominated. Green water plants in the deep-water probes were not detected. At the same time predominance of the green and red water plants is detected in the littoral zone in fouling hydrotechnic construction (breakwaters) communities. Earlier A.A. Kalugina-Gutnik showed that water plants species composition is poor, because of loose grounds domination – just 113 of species or 38,7% from the general numerical strength of macro water plants of the Black sea, at that the leading position is taken by red and brown water plants. In the course of researches 33 water plant species were detected, from them green water plants – 11, red – 14, brown – 8. The conclusion of A.A. Kalugina-Gutnik about thickets water plants absence at the great part of Abkhazian shelf is actual nowadays. It is interesting to note that earlier for Abkhazian shelf water plants of Cystosira kind were not mentioned. The finding of Cystosira crinita testifies about widening of its areal resettlement in the south-east part of the sea. The researches were conducted in the summer period and that is why the represent-atives of the winter-spring algal flora (Bangia, Urospora, Pylaiella, Ectocarpus and others). typical for adjoining area of Big Sochi were not detected. In the same time 13 species of brown and red water plants are detected, earlier not mentioned in the south-east part of the Balck sea, but usual in the water area of Big Sochi. Steady tendency of green water plants increase is marked for Russian part of the Black sea waters. For Abkhazian shelf this tendency is not so expressed, and insignificant presence of green and red water plants of polysaprobic group testifies about small limnetic flowing and minor removal of biogenic elements. In the last decade for Russian part of the Black sea waters narrowing of water plants areal to 5-15 м, practically algal ring at the solid understratum deeper 20m absented or significantly fragmented. Detection of water plant communities in the waters of Abkhazia at the depth of 40 м, testifies about absence of negative phenomena that probably connected with more favourable ecological atmosphere. Regionalization of the Black sea littoral part and revelation of 14 flora regions were conducted by A.A. Kalugina-Gutnik. Such extraction preserves actuality and corresponds to the modern phyto-geographical regionalization. The new phyto-geographical region is separated in the work of V.N. Nikitina and O.A. Lisovskaya for the south-east part of the Black sea – “continental slope of the north-west part of Colchis coast”, apparently such separation is rightful and the borders of phyto-geographical region are necessary to be enlarged, including Abkhazia shelf in it.

Key words: macro water plants, Abkhazia, Abkhazian shelf, seaside zone, fragmentation.

Filatova T., Aleshina E., Kleschenkov A. Taganrog bay in winter: hydrochemical components distribution / annotation

Filatova Tatyana – scientific worker. Southern scientific center of Russian Academy of Science. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Aleshina Elena – engineer-researcher. Southern scientific center of Russian Academy of Science. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Kleschenkov Alexey – candidate of geology, head of the department. Southern scientific center of Russian Academy of Science. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

Information about Taganrog bay hydrochemical regime in winter period has irregular character and generally concerns water chemistry research. In the period of ice formation, when the wind has no dominant influence, when the activity of planktonic community decreases, chemical substances transformation processes slow down, river runoff decreases, ice cover restricts oxygen income into water, not only alteration of biogenic matters hydrochemical fields represents a special interest, but also their distribution in snowpack, in ice and in subglacial water. In winter 2006, 2007, 2014, 2015 and 2016 the South scientific centre RAS and Institute of arid zone SSC RAS conducted hydrochemical researches in Don river estuary and in the littoral part of Taganrog bay, in the process of which the probes of snow, ice and subglacial water were analyzed and selected to determine nitrites, nitrates, ammonia nitrogen, attenuated nitrogen, gross nitrogen, phosphates, attenuated phosphorus, gross phosphorus, silicon, dissolved substances, suspended substances, heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Pb, Mn, Cr). Selection of snow ice and subglacial water probes and their analysis were conducted according to standard methods, recommended for using under ocean hydrochemical researches. In December 2006 nitrites content in the water probes was changed within the interval 5–4, nitrates 55–810, phosphates 23–163 mgk/l, the general admixtures content varied within the range 852–3983 mg/l. In the beginning of February 2007 nitrites and nitrates in the subglacial water were three times more, phosphates – 10 times, dissolved substances – 9 times more, than in the ice. In comparison with snow in subglacial water phosphates were 23 times more, dissolved substances –in 47 times more. Suspended substances in the water probes were the same as in the snow probes, but in the ice probes – 1,4 times more than in the subglacial water probes. In the end of 2007 nitrites in the subglacial water were 1,3 times more, nitrates – 7,5 times more, phosphates – 4 times more, dissolved substances – 22 times more than in the ice. In the same time suspended substances content in water was the same, as in the ice probes. Content determination of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Pb, Mn, Cr) in the probes of snow and ice showed that ferrum, cuprum and manganese were 2 times more in snow than in ice. Content of lead and chrome in snow was significantly more in 1,2 and 1,4 times than in ice. Thus, during researches conduction concentration of nitrites, nitrates, phosphates and the admixtures general content were maximum in the subglacial water. Minimum quantity of nitrites and nitrates were detected in the probes of ice, the minimum concentration of phosphates, attenuated and suspended substances – in the probes of snow. In February 2014 concentration of nitrites in subglacial water varied within the limits 10,0–20,0, nitrates –143,0–483,0, phosphates – 12,0–47,0 mgk/l. In February 2015 content of nitrites in subglacial water was changed within the range 4,0–24,0, nitrates – 1110,0–3090,0, phosphates – 3,0–77,0 mgk/l. In February 2016 ammonium ions content in subglacial water was changed within the interval 60–140,0, nitrites –15,0–24,0, nitrates –290,0–1120,0, gross nitrogen 910,0–2310,0, phosphates –5,0–54,0, gross phosphorus 98,0–221,0, silicon 2100,0–7000,0 mgk/l. Decrease of amplitude concentrations contraction for all biogenic matters according to the distance from esturial seashore and river runoff influence decrease is characterized for all biogenic matters. Realization of systematic hydrochemical observations during the whole year and study of hydrochemical components distribution in snow, ice and subglacial water have a great theoretical and practical significance during the forecasting of hydrochemical regime and water quality of water objects.

Key words: Taganrog bay, winter period, hydrochemic regime, biogenic elements, salty water, ice.

Petrova Yu., Yarovoy M. Ecological and cultural identity of the peoples of the North Caucasus / annotation

Petrova Yulia – candidate of philosophy, associate professor. Rostov state university of economics. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Yarovoy Maxim – student. Rostov state university of economics. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

Ecology of culture is the youngest of the cultural sciences, which meaning until re-cently was regarded as intuitively clear and not requiring special analysis. In the situation of understanding of the harmful effects of industrial civilization, ecological culture that manifests itself as a result of human understanding of unity of man and nature, as "a body of knowledge, skills, moral norms and values transmitted from generation to generation in education and training may be considered especially significant. Ecology of culture of the North Caucasus is a profound spiritual formation, based on the solid socio-historical foundation. cultural-environmental, cultural-creative activities of the North Caucasus creates human ability for transformation not only of nature, society and himself in correlation with basic anthropological values, which form the basis of cultural consciousness. Ecological culture requires constant study of the dynamics and transformation of this phenomenon due to new processes in the modern world, even more raising the significance and value of this phenomenon. In this connection there was a need for a multi-ethnic concept of modern development of ecological culture of the peoples of the North Caucasus to save for descendants the main factors of life support. At the present time the nations of the North Caucasus return to the historical past and want to experience a continuity of the ethnic past. This urge has arisen as a result of violations at some stage of the historical development of the peoples of the North Caucasus of balance between continuity and discontinuity which resulted the need for a modern collective identity. Among the main problems of the North Caucasus region, this can be described as eco-cultural issues there are several significant problems which solutions in the short term are very important for the development among the people of the North Caucasus. One of the main threats to cultural heritage - thriving in the North Caucasus "black archeology", which means illegal excavations at archaeological sites in order to extract artifacts for economic gain. Equally important, but considered a traditional problem for the North Caucasus region is the destruction of monuments of archeology and history in new construction. Along with these cultural problems of ecology, it is also essential to mention that the Caucasian peoples are no exception and problems that are specific for the whole of Russia also relevant and important for them.

Key words: the North Caucasus, ecology of culture, nature, co-evolution, monu-ments, traditions, moral.

Zdorovtseva O. Question on the dominant religion in modern Abkhazia / annotation

Zdorovtseva Olga – extern student. Institute of philosophy and social-political science. Southern federal university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

This study aims to show that Christianity is neither traditional nor dominant religion of Abkhazia in spite of the current official position of the state power and religious identity of the population in this issue. Objectives: 1) to show on the basis of historical and statistical data that in Abkhazia at the beginning of the twentieth century the Orthodoxy prevailed nominally and not really because of the actual Islamization of the population; 2) to show that modern statistics in relation to Orthodoxy as formal as in the early twentieth century due to the fact that the Abkhazians follow the Abkhaz traditional religion. According to the Statistical Yearbook of Russia of 1913 the Orthodox Christians in Abkhazia were in the majority - 85,14 %, Muslims - 11,12 %. Archival data only thirty-two years ago suggests the opposite: in Sukhumi, the Bzyb and Anguish administrative districts the proportion of Mohammedans was 85,48% of the entire population, that exceeded the number of Orthodox more than 70%, and in the whole province persons of the Muslim faith were in dominate. The data of the Statistical Yearbook, probably, have been achieved in the short time due to the quantitative extension of the number of formally baptized residents, essentially remaining “in their opinion” religion. According to the 1897 census the majority of the population in Abkhazia were peasants - 848 persons per 1000 (for comparison students consisted of 64,1 people per 1000 people), the clergy - 23 281, 3 people in the whole province (+10 582,41 people engaged in worship and service in the liturgical buildings). A large part of the population of the province was the local peoples - Kartveli (Abkhazians, Mergels) - 82,1 % - the adherents of the Abkhaz traditional religion. The national and the social composition of the territory, the status of the literacy of the population show the formality of the statistical data of the Orthodox in the prerevolutionary period.
The current state of Abkhazia`s attitude to religion can be described as ambiguous. According to the opinion polls of 2003, 60% of Abkhazia`s population identify themselves as Orthodox Christians. However the Abkhazians are formal Christians: “the Abkhazians- Christians” do not attend churches (or attend them very rarely), do not participate in the sacrament of communion, do not comply with any of the posts, do not interested in the basic beliefs, and do not read the Bible. About 50% of the Abkhazians, who called themselves Christians, have traditional shrines and perform their own rituals which have nothing to do with Christiany. The local religion is actively reviving in Abkhazia over the last 20-25 years. The modern researchers characterize it as “Abkhazian monotheism”. The commitment to their tradition faith the Abkhazians had preserved throughout the Soviet period. Despite the fact that the Abkhazian authorities are trying to demonstrate the equality of all religions, attaching the corresponding provision in the Constitution of 1994, the representatives of the current leadership of Abkhazia, are the obligatory participants in religious ceremonies annually performed in the main Abkhazian sanctuaries (Dydrypsh, etc.). In the current post-Soviet reality the traditional religion of the Abkhazians plays a crucial stabilizing role in the society, it is claimed and, in fact, continues to be the true religion the majority of the Abkhazians. Thus, Orthodoxy in Abkhazia is neither traditional or really the dominant religion in a number of historical and national peculiarities of this state, and the official point of view on this issue is contrary to the actual religious situation.

Key words: Abkhazia, Orthodoxy, Christianity, the traditional religion of Abkhazians, Abkhazian monotheism, the religiosity self-identification.

Dobrina E. Phenomenon of traditional Islam purification from innovations and borrowings as the first step towards achieving Islamist’s goal of returning glorious past / annotation

Dobrina Ekaterina – post-graduate student. Southern federal university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

Prolonged political, economic and cultural crises along with the modern global world challenges brought out the necessity to search the future way of state and social develop-ment for me Middle East countries. «Al hal al islami» (Arabic) - “Islamic solution” was of-fered by Islamist`s ideologists as an authentic truly Islamic way to go out of contemporary crisis. Being fundamental ideology, Islamism offered to change the reality by returning back to the glories past of Muslim community. According to Islamist`s ideology, following the prophet Muhammad`s way of fighting with un-Islamic enemies, contemporary Muslim community will return back glorious history. Namely it is necessary to start with spreading information about religious dogma and “truly” Islam. That Islam (called «traditional Islam») which exists now all around the world was changed by implementing borrowings and innovations and is not that pure Islam needed to realize the goal. Islamist`s ideology strongly reject traditional Islam considering it to be one of the first enemy and calling of it purification. The conflict between Islamist`s ideology and traditional Islam and the process of traditional Islam purification from borrowings and innovations are investigated in the article on the cultural examples, such as women clothing, personal names and holidays.

Key words: the ideology of Islamism, traditional Islam, “pure Islam”, “Islamic solution”, Sayyid Kutb.

M. Mustafaeva, F. Mustafaev, M. Mustafaev Comparative analysis of modern Dagestan student youth value orientations / annotation

Mustafaeva Maida – Ph.D. of philosophy, professor. Dagestan state pedagogical university. Makhachkala, Dagestan Republic, Russian Federation.
Mustafaev Farid – Ph.D. of philosophy, associate professor. Dagestan state pedagogical university. Makhachkala, Dagestan Republic, Russian Federation.
Mustafaev Mustafa – Ph.D. of pedagogy, professor. Dagestan state pedagogical university. Makhachkala, Dagestan Republic, Russian Federation.

It has been carried out a comparative socially-philosophical analysis of value orientations of the modern Dagestan youth, its relation to national and international problems in the region. Sociological material quiz and analysis of Dagestan students opinion is indicated there: DSU, DSPU, DSMA, DSTU and DSAA. Distribution of answers according to universities gives differentiating picture of students value orientations. Thus, for instance, during sociocultural and ethnonational values research of various socially-ethnical cultures modern studentship, the answers to the question “What do you follow in your behavior?” shown that traditions and customs of elders, ancestors act as the basic behavior regulator for 52,1 % of Dagestan students. Also the opinions of “relatives and friends”, surrounding people significantly influence on Dagestan students. Many students act in a certain manner by force of “habit” (17%), and “calculation” (12%) stands behind their actions. A lot of people follow “exiting national traditions” in their behavior (64, 6%). Behavior formation on “calculation” is accepted to consider as pragmatic tendencies manifestation in a person moral orientations, which in their turn, act as the result of socially-political instability of modern society, changes in the sphere of labor and personal relations, reflect disbelief to the authority and surrounding people. Birthplace and nationality of a person, settled factor can also significantly influence on his value system formation. According to the results of the research, natives of the Dagestan village are in their behavior more inclined to follow “surrounding people opinion” (35%), “existing national traditions” (35%). Urban students – “opinion of relatives and friends” (27%), “habit” (13%), “law” (10%), “intelligence” (60%). Determination of a person moral quality in the ethnonational environment is considered to be the important moment under the value orientations analysis of the Dagestan student youth.
It turned out that the students of the Dagestan universities more over appreciate in people such qualities as honesty (68,7%), kindness (40,6%), industry (28,7%), modesty (28,1%) and self-esteem (25,7%). But patriotism and internationalism are more highly ap-preciated by the Dagestan students (60,9%), than other personal qualities. The idea about Dagestan students estimation peculiarities of some or other features, person qualities, be-ginning from patriotism, gives us their further analysis depending on gender, speciality, university, nationality, place of birth and a year of study. If speak about patriotism and in-ternationalism separately in the respondents estimations according to the indicated para-meters, then men (youth) (63%) highly estimate the given quality, than women (girls) (38%). The students of technical specialities (45%) estimate patriotic orientations and qualities of a person higher, than humanitarian (25%) and naturalist students (20%). Among DSPU there are about (32%) of such students, while in DSMA there are (22%), but in DSAA the given quality remained without estimation. 28% of Russian students consider patriotism and internationalism to be valuable qualities of a person. Patriotism is rather more valuable for the village natives (45%). Industry, working efficiency, patriotism and internationalism are rather more valuable qualities for men (33%), technical specialties students (35%), DSTU students (43%), equally for the students of Kumyk, Lezgin and Lak nationalities (35%), those who live in urban area (40%). Self-esteem is more estimated by women (girls) (29%), technical specialties students (31%), DSTU students (46%), respondents of Lak nationality (39%) and urban natives (34%).

Key words: value, youth value orientations, person moral qualities, sociocultural, ethnonational and interethnic social values.

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