ISSN 2414-1143

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CONTENTS
2019. N 1

Ethnocultural and historical processes of the Caucasus region
(Philosophy)

Berkovskiy V., Tronina L. Social and Historical Aspect of Interaction of Ethnic Culture and Personality in the Context of Public Development / annotation

Vyacheslav A. Berkovskiy – candidate of sociological sciences, associate professor. Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute, Stavropol, Russia.
Larisa A. Tronina – doctor of philosophy, professor. Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute, Stavropol, Russia.

In philosophy, cultural studies and pedagogy, the concept «culture» is considered as a phenomenon of social life, as a specific way of activity, including the process of creative individuality and uniqueness of the individual as a subject. Culture is reviewed as knowledge characterizing various historical epochs, ethnic groups, spheres of life activity, informing about the level of development of society, about the creative forces and abilities of a person, expressed in the types and forms of organization of life and activity of people, their mutual relations in society. There are two spheres of culture: the material and the spiritual. Material culture includes the objective results of human activities; spiritual culture combines those phenomena that are associated with consciousness, with the intellectual and emotional-psychological activity of man. Material and spiritual culture are in organic unity, integrating into a certain single type of culture, which is historically variable, at each new stage of its development, inherits all the most valuable created by the previous culture.The psychological aspect of the phenomenon of culture is interconnected with the problem of objective and subjective in becoming a person and is studied in connection with human life on the basis of the active assimilation of social forms of consciousness and behavior. Mental processes are considered in the context of the relationship of man with the world of culture.Culture is a syncretic phenomenon, a background for harmonious relations of man with nature, society and himself, the synthesis of material and spiritual values, a necessary condition for a harmonious relationship with the outside world and ensuring a civilized future. Culture, permeating the entire vital activity of society, is one of the components of the generalized criterion of a specific historical being. This is a specific way of life activity in the unity and diversity of historically developed forms.

Key words: culture, tradition, ethnos, personality, social and ethnic community

Magomedova M. The Ethnoculture of the North Caucasus as a Factor of Counteraction to Extremism among Youth / annotation

Madina Z. Magomedova – candidate of philosophical sciences, the leading scientific worker of the Regional Centre of Ethnopolitical sciences. Dagestan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences; associate professor of Department of Humanitarian Disciplines. Dagestan State University of National Economy, Makhachkala, Russian Federation.

The ethnoculture of the peoples of the North Caucasus is a part of the common cultural heritage of the peoples of Russia. It has a great social, cultural and political significance. In the context of globalization, it is important to preserve the national languages, traditions, folklore and originality of all North Caucasian peoples. It is also important to create the conditions for their free national self-affirmation and popularization of the ethnocultural heritage. The research of the problems of the traditional culture of the North Caucasian peoples is especially actualized by the leveling the significance of ethnocultural values in the Russian society. Preserving ethnoculture is also one of the important factors in countering extremist ideology in the North Caucasus, whose supporters, using the influence of religion in the region, are trying to distort the meaning of the ideas laid down in Islam, pulling them out of the context and treating them tendentiously. Conducting preventive measures among young people is much more productive than the elimination of the consequences of their extremist and terrorist activities. Radical religious organizations use misinformation, intimidation, manipulation of public consciousness, the substitution of concepts and facts extensively, use the Internet for recruiting of new members, including suicide bombers. In contrast to the activities of destructive forces in society, it is necessary to recall and revive the traditional values of the peoples of the North Caucasus, on which our ancestors relied: honoring their elders, mentoring young people, protecting women and children, respecting the traditions of their ancestors, etc. If this foundation, on which the whole social structure was built in the Caucasus, collapses then the younger generation will have nothing to build its future on.

Key words: ethnoculture, traditional culture, polyethnicity, polyconfessionality, the North Caucasus, ethnoconfessional tolerance, Islam, extremism, the youth

(Theory and history of culture)

Petrova Yu., Shevkun Yu. Myths and Legends of the Black Sea Region / annotation

Yulia A. Petrova – candidate of philosophical sciences, associate professor of foreign languages for economic specialties, Rostov state university of economics. Rostov-on-Don, Russia.
Yulia S. Shevkun – student. Rostov state university of economics. Rostov-on-Don, Russia.

The first ideas of the Greeks about the Black Sea region and about the peoples, who inhabited it, had been formed long before the colonization thanks to the travelers and traders. The sea was rich in fish, and the coastal lands were rich in shipborne and construction timber, and in ironstone. However, sailing in the Black sea was dangerous for seamen. Because of the weak indentation of the coasts there were few convenient places for the harbors, there were almost no islands and peninsulas, so habitual for the Mediterranean Greeks. For a long time, the Northern borders remained unexplored.The sea, which was called "Póntos” by the Greeks, was considered to be a part of the Ocean, which surrounded the inhabited land by the bay. In the Ocean, according to the ancient ideas, was the entrance to the kingdom of the dead, so sailing on it was equal to the trip to the Hades. In the same place, in the Ocean, where chaos reigned, it was possible to meet the “blessed islands”, where the souls of the heroes lived. Such ideas, as well as the difficulties of navigation had been preventing the development of the shores of the Black Sea for a long time and had affected the very name of the sea, the Greek name "ΠόντοςἌξεινοςPóntosÁxeinos", “Inhospitable Sea”. Later, during the period of colonization, it would be called “ΕὔξεινοςΠόντοςEúxeinosPóntos”, "Hospitable Sea".The information about the Black Sea coast, colored by fiction, has been preserved in myths, legends and poems.

Key words: Black Sea Region, myths, legends, ancient historians, the Republic of Crimea

Goncharov V., Kolosova O. The Cultural and Historical Analysis of Slavic Religion in the Context of the Ethno-graphic Research / annotation

Vadim N. Goncharov – doctor of philosophical sciences, associate professor. North Caucasian Federal University, Stavropol, Russia.
Olga Iu. Kolosova – doctor of philosophical sciences, associate professor. Krasnodar University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Stavropol branch.

It is proved in this article that ethnographic researches represent one of the components of scientific cultural and historical research of social development. According to the authors, not only cultural artifacts but also many other ones are infused with religious attitude and more with associations of religious character. All these artifacts reflect ideological aspects of consciousness formation, the system of behavior and relationship of people. The tradition force, selectivity and the normalizing nature of national culture allowed remaining some ancient plots so that they can be a source of replenishment of data on pre-Christian religious views of the Slavs.Understanding the initial semantics of these plots and disclosing their value are possible only with attraction of comparative data on beliefs and ceremonies, with application of various historical evidences and the most ancient historical monuments. All this can be historically comprehended only taking into account the ancient pagan world outlook. The Slavic paganism is a part of the huge universal complex including the most ancient beliefs, ceremonies and mythology that served as a component of the latest world religions. The church treated paganism as an antithesis to Christianity that has nothing in common with the true situation, with science about religion. Historians, religion scholars, archeologists and ethnographers proved that the Christian church, fighting against local cults, nevertheless, absorbed them and included in its dogma, agreeing with insufficient integrity and logic of the turning-out synthesis. The characteristic of religion in general is that with emergence of new representations the old ones do not disappear, and continue to exist along with new even if contradict them.

Key words: culture, belief, pagan cults, religion, religious consciousness, society

Ivushkina E., Dashkova E. Social and Cultural Activities of the Regions atthe Present Stage: Programme Goal Method / annotation

Elena B. Ivushkina – doctor of philosophy, professor at the Department of Tourism and Hospitality Industry. Chechen State University, Grozny, Chechen Republic, Russia.
Elena V. Dashkova – candidate of philosophical sciences, associate professor, head of the department of Tourism and Hospitality Industry. Chechen State University, Grozny, Chechen Republic, Russia.

The relevance of the article is due to the increasing attention paid to the formation of the national dignity of the peoples of the Russian Federation. Strengthening the authority of Russia is based on the awareness of the cultural self-identity of the peoples of the country. Overcoming the idealization of Western stereotypes of life is associated with an appeal to the spiritual and moral heritage of Russia. This heritage has been preserved in the traditions and folklore of the peoples of the Russian Federation. It is emphasized that modern forms of culture without broadcasting historical and social experience, without resorting to the national environment, change their character, their social carrier, their functions in culture, and even their artistic appearance. In order for the original culture of the people to continue to exist, it is necessary to take into account the traditional experience of national communities. The possibilities of an ethno-social society, which preserves the cultural heritage of the ancestors, creates a modern view on traditional culture, reproduces and transfers it to subsequent generations. The historical-cultural heritage is analyzed on the basis of the richest experience of previous generations, which allows modern man to identify himself in the modern world. Socio-cultural activity remains an integral part of the culture of modern society. It is of particular importance in the education of the young generation, the formation of civilian qualities, respect for the cultural heritage of their people, and their social memory. The current trends in the development of social and cultural activities are highlighted. Characteristics are given and the main categories of intangible cultural heritage are identified, the possibilities of using it in educating an individual by means of cultural institutions of regions of the Russian Federation.

Key words: socio-cultural activities, cultural heritage, folk culture, social memory

Hiyasova S., Mustafaeva M., Mustafaev F. Traditions and Customs of the Peoples of Dagestan (Historical and Cultural Analysis of Funeral Rites) / annotation

Sarat G. Hiyasova – candidate of pedagogic sciences, associate professor. Dagestan State Pedagogical University, Makhachkala, Russia.
Maida G. Mustafaeva – doctor of philosophy, professor. Dagestan State Pedagogical University, Makhachkala, Russia.
Farid M. Mustafaev – doctor of philosophy, associate professor. Dagestan State Pedagogical University, Makhachkala, Russia.

The article is devoted to a comprehensive historical and cultural research of funeral rites as an important part of traditional Dagestan culture. The funeral rites of the peoples of Dagestan are the most well established and “consecrated” by the ancient traditions cycle of actions, the violation of which has met and still meets with strong condemnation from public opinion. It reflects the moral attitudes developed by a long experience of national life. Despite the deeply tragic nature of the process itself, there is a clear regulation of ritual activities, there are elements of theatricality. The entire cycle of the early funeral rites of the people of Dagestan is analyzed, which includes prefuneral customs and rituals, funerals themselves and rites and customs associated with funerals. A comparative characteristic with the funeral rite at the present stage is also carried out; its current and obsolete elements are indicated. The authors come to the conclusion that the funeral ritual of the Dagestan peoples was and remains multi-layered, despite the greatest Islamization and regulation by the clergy of many moments of the funeral cycle. It is shown that many elements of the former pagan rituals have been preserved and reflected in the funeral rites, although in a somewhat transformed and modified form.

Key words: traditions, customs, ceremonies, culture, Dagestan, funeral

Kuleshin M., Leonova N., Nemashkalov P. Historical Consciousness as a Part of National Consciousness: to the Problem Statement of the Research / annotation

Maxim G. Kuleshin – candidate of historical sciences, associate professor. State Educational Government-Financed Institution of Higher Education "Stavropol state teacher`s institute", Stavropol, Russia.
Natalya A. Leonova – candidate of historical sciences, associate professor. State Educational Government-Financed Institution of Higher Education "Stavropol state teacher`s institute", Stavropol, Russia.
Pavel G. Nemashkalov – candidate of historical sciences, associate professor. State Educational Government-Financed Institution of Higher Education "Stavropol state teacher`s institute", Stavropol, Russia.

It is known that each new generation addresses the past not only for the purpose of un-derstanding of connections with the past, but also because of the present interests. At any historical stage, there is time when historical figures or events are of great interest. It is noted that most of the peoples pay special attention to the past that obviously coincides with the growth of national consciousness. It has been recently occurred that the attention to the historical past is connected with the judgment of modern realization of the principles of social development. Therefore, from the scientific and practical point of view it makes sense to consider the question about the ratio of historical and national consciousness of the folk. The important place is taken here by the historical memory in the system of historical conscious-ness. Ethno-social researches allow giving the real vision of the situation in the life of the folk. The vision of the historical past is one of the components of national consciousness if to understand it widely not only as identification of people on the ground of nationality, but also as an image of the folk in general, that is the vision of features of the folk, its culture, past and present and the national interests connected with it. At the same time visions, knowledge of people of this or that community about their past, including mythological knowledge, scientifically got historical data have not been the historical consciousness yet. It is possible to call such knowledge and visions the historical memory. It is an indispensable part of culture in which continuity stabilizes the ethnos. The historical memory is a peculiar spiritual potential of the folk. It can be used, and it is really used sometimes for the benefit of all folk and sometimes of separate social groups.

Key words: historical memory, national interests, social interests, historical knowledge, culture, personality, consciousness

Sklyarova E., Kamalova O. Features of the Formation of the British-Turkish Diplomacy of the Second Half of the XIX Century / annotation

Elena K. Sklyarova – candidate of historical sciences, associate professor. Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia.
Olga N. Kamalova – candidate of philosophical sciences, associate professor. Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia.

The article considers features of the formation of the British-Turkish diplomatic relations during the Victorian time. The diplomats and figures of the public health service who had the official and unofficial status during the Crimean War (1853 – 1856) and the Russian-Turkish War (1877 – 1878) defined the significant role in their development. Being engaged in parliamentary and diplomatic activity Austen Henry Layard was elected the lord-rector of the University of Aberdeen, he worked in the British Foreign Office, and he was appointed the first member of the commission of public works, which dealt with the issues of public health service. Considering his versatile abilities, periodic stay in Constantinople, knowledge of traditions of the Ottoman Empire he was appointed the ambassador of Great Britain in Constantinople. Before him, the British ambassador in Turkey the lord Stratford Canning took the influential position in Constantinople. This lord had a considerable impact on the formation of the Anglo-Turkish and Russian-Turkish relations. All the information obtained from H. Layard was transferred by the lord Stratford Canning in his reports about the situation in the Ottoman Empire to the British Foreign Minister. In this period in Constantinople there was a race for power between the Reform party, Sultan and Rashchid Pasha`s environment, various political groups. Turkey was in difficult economic and social situation, which was worsened by the influx of refugees and by the national and religious contradictions. The population movement defined the need of social reforms, new sanitary problems of army and the cities of empires. The British parliament carefully monitored the development of the Russian-Turkish relations on the eve of the Crimean War. The government of Britain was interested in disruption of the political relations between Russia and Turkey, and in the weakening of military-political power of the Russian Empire. The British press warmed up the negative attitude of Great Britain to Russia. Insanitary conditions of soldiers in the Crimea and Turkey became the subject of the parliamentary reports, having defined the formation of medical diplomacy. Successful maneuvering of the British government for the purpose of realization of their own military-political ambitions became the feature of the Anglo-Turkish relations of the Victorian time. London successfully used consequences of the Crimean War, knowledge and experience of the non-staff diplomats, their anti-Russians and pro-Turkish sentiments, the corresponding publications of the press for the weakening of the Russian Empire and the expansion of its own possession at the expense of Turkey.

Key words: diplomacy, empire, Constantinople, the Ottoman Empire, Great Britain, the Russian Empire, Henry Layard, Florence Nightingale, the Crimean War

HERITAGE OF THE PAST: CAUCASUS STUDY

Zhdanov Yu. The Word about the North Caucasus / annotation

Yuri A. Zhdanov – doctor of chemistry, candidate of philosophical sciences, professor. Rector of the Rostov state university (1957-1988).

Chernous V. Civilizational-Cultural Dialogue in the Caucasus as the Basis of Regional Stability / annotation

Victor V. Chernous – candidate of political sciences, professor. Southern Federal University.

Don State Technical University
Tbilisi State University
Moldavian association of international law
DANUBIUS University
Varna Free University 'Chernorizets Hrabar'