ISSN 2414-1143

ARCHIVE

CONTENTS
2016. N 3

Culture and historic, ethnoreligious problems
in Black Sea region countries

Yurchenko I. Ethnocultural factors of national security in modern Russia in terms of new geopolitical challenges in the Black Sea region / annotation

Yurchenko Inna – Ph.D. of political study, professor. Chief scientific worker of political science and conflictology dpt. Institute of socio-economic and humanities research of Southern scientific center RAS; Rostov-on-Don. Professor of Kuban state university. Krasnodar, Russian Federation.

An attempt to prove dependence of national security protection problem solution of Russian state from the ethnocultural character factors influence with consideration of Black Sea region specificity is undertaken in the article. New geopolitical challenges are analyzed in the context of Cri-mea and Russia reunion and the new united South Federal district formation, problems of ethnocultural identities politicization, phenomena emersion of “hybrid wars” (“wars for identity, wars of memory” and etc.) Ethnocultural factors of the Black Sea region development, where socially-political processes are developed under the constant influence of globalization risks, situated under careful attention of the South scientific centre researchers RAS, about what empirical data of sociological monitoring, various proprietary materials and other actual information, received in the consequence of expeditions can speak.
In the context of the Black Sea region geopolitics always represents extremely significant strategic centre. Unstable and various migration directions induce disbelief spread of an old population, anxious and uncertainty feeling in preservation of existing economic and sociocultural order, customs and traditions. Cultural, language, confessional mosaic of polytechnic polysynthetic society requires rational way searching of interethnic and inter-confessional conflicts prevention. Four subjects of the Federation can be referred to Russian Black Sea region: Krasnodar region, Republic of Crimea, Sevastopol city and the Republic of Adygeya. In the process of Crimea and Russia reunion the new phenomena appear in the political field of interaction in the areal of Black Sea region governments.
The problems of ethnical, religious, linguistic, sociocultural mosaic, manifesting in a complex and conflict identity induce a special interest, and that is why an integrated situation analysis of ethnocultural factors of Russian Federation national security supplying at the regional level is required. Socially mutual relations between dominate ethnical groups and minorities can become strained in the result of informative-psychological technologies influence using in the context of Washington geopolitical appetencies, allotting itself a role of stability guarantee in the whole world. “Hybrid wars”, which are conducted against the row of states with a goal of separatism activation, radical nationalism, confrontation induction of ethnical groups for domination, are used on the basis of utmost “Russophobia” manifestation, radicalism and extremism at these territories. Danger decrease of Russian culture influence preserves in the separate regions of the Black Sea region, especially difficult integrated into the unite civilizational space of Russia.
The real boundaries narrowing of Russian influence in the Black Sea in the post-Soviet period led to emergence of the new challenges and threats for the regional security, that required to produce tactics of effective response to arising situations, and introduction of serious additions and corrections to the political strategy of Russian state, rejection from stereotypes in interaction with political players. It is necessary to speak about other threats and challenges of internal and external character for national security of modern Russian state in the Black Sea region that actualizes a systemic situational political analysis and conflictological expertise of the Black Sea region development.

Key words: ethno-cultural factors, geopolitical challenges, national security, the Black Sea region, "hybrid war", the politicization of ethnic and cultural identity, the administrative-territorial division.

Avksentiev V. Ethnocultural and ethnoreligious problems as instruments of geopolitics / annotation

Avksentiev Victor – Ph.D. of philosophy, professor. Institute of socio-economic and humanities re-search of Southern scientific center RAS, head of political science and conflictology dpt. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

In the last quarter of century, ethno-cultural and ethno-religious problems and conflicts are widely used in international politics as an instrument of conflict and mobilize the basis for interfe-rence in the internal affairs of different States. This resource is used by all the players, beginning from small ethnic groups that appeal to major geopolitical players to get support to the leading world and regional powers.
Azov-Caspian-Black Sea region, with its complex ethnic and confessional structure falls under the concept of "geopolitical axis" (Zbigniew Brzezinski), and this gives grounds for predicting long-term instability in the region in terms of the geopolitical reconfiguration of the world began. The main emphasis is on prevention in the Azov-Black Sea Region, Caspian integrative project under the aegis of Russia. Tracks the performance in the ethno-political and religious sphere, this is the target, which will aim at Russia`s geopolitical opponents.
As a result of active management actions after the creation of the North Caucasus Federal District of the situation in southern Russia has stabilized. However, it was not possible to reverse the economic situation in the North Caucasus, although official figures show a slight improvement in employment. The economic picture in the republics of the North Caucasus although complicated, but in many ways not the worst in the country, however, this region is a resource for the under-ground bands in Russia and the Middle East. The solution of this problem should be reducing ten-sion, re-industrialization and modernization. The problem is not only poverty and unemployment, but also difficulties in realization of life strategies. Despite numerous attempts to develop small and medium businesses, also it’s still difficult to open and maintain its productivity. As a result, people feel deprivation, a sense of injustice. Especially young people tend to experience such kind of emo-tions. Young people trying to build a life strategies, understand how it’s difficult or almost impossi-ble to make legally using socially acceptable methods in conditions of corruption, the inefficiency of the authorities and the sprawling atnolinguist. People feel disbelief in government`s ability to counter the negative trends.
Radical Islam offers an alternative living arrangement. Today the greatt problem - is a social layer militants sympathizers, many of whom are educated in the new religiosity of young people. Social network analysis shows how Islamic religious rhetoric captivated young people. This passion religion skillfully used recruiters, promising a fair society based on Islamic principles.
In the south of Russia there was a significant socio-cultural split between "ethnic Russian" and "ethnically non-Russian" territories. "Russian" territory is a modernized territory and non-Russians - is the territory of archaism. South of Russia has become a regional manifestation of the clash of civilizations through the "modernity - tradition." Unresolved problems accumulate and in interethnic and interconfessional relations serve as an internal basis for the instability in the Russian Azov-Black Sea region and the Caspian region, "bait" for geopolitical players. Ethnicity and religion in the XXI century, are the main factors of the conflict and the mobilization of the most important geopolitical tool in the southern macro-region.

Key words: territory, ethno-cultural, ethno-religious, the Azov-Black Sea region, the Caspian Sea region, young people, clan, geopolitics.

Astapov S. The role of theological expertise in problem solving of state-confessional relations in Russia / annotation

Astapov Sergey – Ph.D. of philosophy, associate professor. Southern federal university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation. National research nuclear university “MIFI”. Moscow, Russian Federation.

In modern Russia the actuality of constant observation, evaluation and forecasting of interethnic and interconfessional interaction is conditioned by modernization processes dynamism also including the spheres of ethnical and religious relations, despite of their existing inertial traditions potential. Ethno-confessional relations act as important constituents of the national security, as an ethnical so national factor often produce conflict and extremist moods. Not numerous theological community could play its positive role in conflict decreasing and conflicts precaution in the sphere of state-confessional relations, if state and religious organizations could see experts in theologians, whose conclusions are accepted in the quality of qualified recommendations, according to these or that social questions.
Two normative documents activated theologians-experts function: Federal law of RF from 27 of July 2002 No 114-FL “About extremist activity opposition” and Order of Justice Department of RF from 18 of February 2009 № 53 “About state theological expertise”. The first according to reli-gious organizations activity approved participation necessity of theologian specialist in materials expertise with extremism features, the second one – defined indispensable participation of scientists-theologians in activity of expert councils according to state religious expertise conducting under Justice Department of RF and its departments in the subjects of RF.
The participation of theologians in forensic examinations appeared to be a momentous event for theological society. Firstly, religious organizations representatives showed interest to this society. It was expressed in that religious organizations attorneys, the literature of whom was admitted to be extremist, became looking for such experts among theologians, who could ably perform on the defense side. Thirdly, religious expertise educed collisions in religious materials estimation, con-nected with difference of religious discourse material and secular discourse of society law-enforcement system. Such-like collisions led to the law-enforcement practice advance.
However preliminary examination from the religious community side is appeared to be more rational, than advance of normative acts in relation to religious unities activity in the wake of collisions appearing in law-enforcement practice. Theological expertise of legal norms, related to the religious unities activity, – is not the only sphere of state-confessional relations, where presence of theologians professional experience would be useful. Offers of physical and juridical persons act as religious expertise objects, besides the projects of regulatory act according to the questions of inter-confessional relations, containing in their appeals to the regulatory bodies, and also data of opinion polls and other monitoring events, mass media materials gathering according to the same questions. The role of religious expertise of such-like materials consists in clearing of their significance, and in a row of cases in – competence establishment from positions of religious discourse specificity, polyconfessional situation in secular (or post-secular) society.

Key words: religious expertise, regulations, multi-religious situation, the authorities, the media, the Russian Federation subjects.

Babakhova L. Processes of dehumanization in modern culture / annotation

Babakhova Lyudmila – candidate of philosophy, associate professor. Don state technical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

Social situation, characterizing the modern culture, is connected with public conscience redirecting from collectivism ideals to the ideas of liberal individualism that points to the fundamental transformation of human existing conditions. Degradation of fundamental axiological orienting points, comprising a person world view basis, spread of hedonistic consumption ideals in the society, fund the processes of dehumanization, connected with social estrangement of an individual.
Confirmation of social ideals deprivation feeling in mass consciousness contributes to growth of moral relativism. Orientation to the permissiveness principle in the pursuit for comfort of an individual being and satisfaction obtainment, unhumanizely influence to a person, distorting its spiritual structure. Axiological world transformation of an individual, disappearance of universal world view basis, find its reflection in dehumanization of a person activity that manifests in tendency to spiritual values rejection in favor of material requirements contentment.
Consumer-utilitarian relation to the world, determination to welfare possession, allows speaking about processes of person dehumanization, connected with a confirmation of hedonistic consumption ideals in the modern culture. Propaganda of material welfare ideals and unrestrained consumption, inevitably entail simplification and impoverishment of an individual spiritual culture, directing him only to individualize demands contentment. Models and behavior samples, offered by mass media, contribute to formation of a “qualified” consumer, concerned with searching of individual life quality. Social ideals depreciation of collectivism, brotherhood, patriotism, self-sacrifice for the sake of “common business”, unhumanizes human activity, restricting it to the moments of consumption and using, denying supraindividual aims and values. Vital activity, aimed to contentment of only individual demands, without orientation to panhuman meanings and values, does not contradict with common norms, but leads to estrangement and deprivation of a person emotional connection with the world and other people.
Spiritual structure simplification, suppression of a genuine human entity, dominance of remote communication forms broadly define the modern face. Dehumanization is characterized by estrangement processes increase of person spiritual values, discontinuity of deep social connections, in the result of which an individual feels strange in relation with other people, founding his interaction exceptionally on the functional basis. Thus, dehumanization processes, observing in the modern culture, are accompanied by relativization of moral bases. Public conscience redirecting from moral values, collectively significant aims of a human life to individualist ideals of the consumption epoch, contributes to estrangement increment and leads a person to the state of perplexity, feeling of “inauthenticity” of his existence.

Key words: culture, modernity, dehumanization, social consciousness, spirituality, moral grounds.

Akaev V. Ethnocultural diversity and consolidation of Caucasus people unity: theoretic-methodologic analysis / annotation

Akaev Vakhit – Ph.D. of philosophy, professor, chief scientific worker of Comprehensive science and research institute of H.I. Ibragimov RAS. Grozny, Chechen Republic, Russian Federation.

Caucasus occupies special place in the Eurasian region – a unique geographical, ethno-political, ethno-cultural education. Even in ancient times through the Caucasus various trade routes moved from nomadic conquerors, here rushed brave heroes for adventure and peaceful travelers. It is a place of extraordinary accumulations of peoples, tribes, with their amazing culture, historical events and grandiose battles.
Particular attention is paid to the various problems of the cultural and social life of the North Caucasus people. It is noted that the current Russian political elite does not realize enough advantage of the host of the North Caucasus as a part of the country`s total population. There are no close economic and cultural ties with the peoples of the South Caucasus, the system successfully overcome the inter-state and inter-ethnic conflicts. Its usage is not enough, developed in the past and diffuse lingering in this educational, scientific and cultural and economic ties between universities, research centers, theaters, businesses and so on. At deficiency of these relationships are targeted intellectuals, youth, political elites in the anti-Russian political and military blocs, transnational corporations.
One of the issues pointed out in the given article is the problem of migration. In particular, it is noted that all kinds of speculation of some researchers about the "internal migration", "aliens" from the North Caucasus are counterproductive, they are directed against the region`s ethnic and cultural diversity, unity of its folk, as well as a whole Russia. Unfortunately such statements do not determine the strategy of strengthening of interethnic relations in the country, but only a superficial solution to the existing problems in this area. The challenge is to identify the deeper social and economic base of solutions to these problems and to suggest ways of their successful solution. Only in this case it is possible the successful development of the North Caucasus and to strengthen their unity.

Key words: Caucasus, North Caucasus, the Caucasian peoples, culture, migration, unity.

Mustafaev M., Mustafaeva M., Magomedova Z. Formation and development of patriotism as the most important stability factor of modern Dagestan society / annotation

Mustafayev Mustafa – Ph.D. of pedagogical studies, professor. Dagestan state pedagogical university. Makhachkala, Dagestan Republic, Russian Federation.
Mustafayeva Maida – Ph.D. of philosophy, professor. Dagestan state pedagogical university. Makhachkala, Dagestan Republic, Russian Federation.
Magomedova Zuleikha Magomedovna – senior lecturer of philosophy and culture study dpt. Dagestan state pedagogical university. Makhachkala, Dagestan Republic, Russian Federation.

All-Dagestan patriotism is considered as one of the most significant components of modern society development, and also as a feature of patriotism expression in especially specific multicultural region, as the Republic of Dagestan appears to be. The authors of the given article consider the concept “ all-Dagestan patriotism” as historically formed moral self-identification feature of Dagestan people, as a high step of emotionally-moral positive relation not only to people of their nationality, but to all so called “Dagestan people” of other nationalities. This is the feeling of the common motherland, common destiny and common perspectives of progressive development.
The highest level of all-Dagestan patriotism is the deepest comprehension by people of various nationalities of their own responsibility for destiny of their common all-Dagestan motherland. As authors note this is possible only when a person is free from individual, group and national egoism. Sociological quiz of republic’s population, conducted by the authors in different years of self-identification problems approved that “all-Dagestan” directivity of various nationalities people – personally prevailed on dozens of percent in comparison with ethnonational, nationally – personal identification.

Key words: patriotism, all-Dagestan patriotism, self-identification, traditions, customs, spiritually-moral person, multicultural environment.

Ivanova S. Meaning of Russian ethnic identity in modern civil project / annotation

Ivanova Svetlana – Ph.D. of philosophy, professor, chief scientific worker. Southern scientific center RAS. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The crisis and the destruction of the Soviet ideology and culture once again exposed and exacerbated the very problem of Russia`s civilizational identity. Successful reforms, the implementation of national projects in Russia at the moment are not possible without taking into account the factor of identity. In recent years, political elites are increasingly paying attention to the project for the formation of civic identity. The basic fields for the formation of civic identity are the cultural, economic and political. At the end of 1980s, we observed the crisis of civic identity. At the beginning of the 1990s, we have been overcoming the crisis connected with the collapse of the Soviet Union and the destruction of the usual Soviet identity. Currently, you can already assume that the notion of "Russians" as the identification of the term as a whole has received public recognition and turned into a bit of updated operating cultural concepts, and not only by experts, but also at the grassroots level.
Formation of Russian identity occurs in a multicultural and multiethnic environment, with the intensification of migration flows, total ethnic self-determination. These factors raise the question of the development of an optimal model of human identity in modern Russia. Here arises an important question about the place of Russian ethnic identity in modern civil project. In the center of methodological research related to the problem of identity actualization of the national cultural and historical specificity, as well as the analysis of the current mentality should be placed. Russian mentality underlying ethnic identification of Russian people, driven by the values of the spiritual, not the material and in the process of civilizational interaction borrowed socio-psychological qualities of other people, which resulted in a kind of solution to the Russian civilizational issues, such as the formation and development of statehood, relations between society and the individual, understanding of the nature of democracy, etc.
When it is said that the Russians have lost identity, it seems either misleading or deliberately exaggerated. Over the years most Russian citizens have defined their religion. Many, as it was mentioned earlier, consider themselves to be Russians. Many even continue to consider themselves Soviet. The vast majority of people still consider themselves to the great Russian culture, citizens of a great country. Apparently, we should talk about what really is happening with self-development of identity, the transformation of new knowledge and ideas into new values and norms, adapting traditions to new realities.

Key words: ethnic identity, citizenship, values, civic identity, polyethnic environment mentality, civilization.

Levshin N. Modern pseudo-Christian ideas as an obstacle on the way of social and economic devel-opment of Russia / annotation

Levshin Nikolay – postgraduate student. Don state technical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

Modern society is going through the era of total information. In this regard, the task of simplifying the identification of citizens will inevitably be reduced to the introduction of universal electronic media of personal data. The introduction of this transmitter makes it possible to read automatically passport data, providing a reduction in time and resources to fill a variety of receipts and other documents, and allowing to minimize the problem of queues. The introduction of the state of each of the new means of identification (such as a Taxpayer Identification Number - TIN) is accompanied by unrest among the Christian faith. These disturbances are due to misinterpretation of the Christian texts in which you can find a line of a certain number, the holders of which the mark is prepared to buy and sell.
Russian Orthodox Church (hereinafter - ROC) is trying to fight the spread of incorrect interpretations, explaining the historical tradition of identifying citizens of the state. However, we can not say that the above explanations significantly contribute to the reduction of mass unrest as the number of Christians who are familiar with the official position of the Russian Orthodox Church, is significantly inferior to the number of supporters of an incorrect interpretation. The above state of affairs is due to the fact that for the dissemination of incorrect interpretations of Christian texts actively used such technology for the mass dissemination of information as "spam". Which essentially boils down to the placement of the template information messages on pages in the Internet discussions, participation in which is available for distributors? This text replicated incorrect interpretation traditionally accompanied by criticism of the representatives of the current government (incriminating them in an effort to manipulate the citizens, through the implantation of control chips) or advertising services "orthodox lawyers" (as they call themselves), ready for a modest fee "to help the brothers in the faith" with registration of non-receipt of a universal electronic card.
Thus, we can observe how the pseudo-Christian ideas used by representatives of the opposition political forces to provoke dissatisfaction current government, and enterprising lawyers - in order to expand its customer base. However, it is important to understand that regardless of the particular objectives pursued by distributors, replicated texts may cause an uncontrollable mass panic. This mass panic becomes an instrument of destabilization of public sentiment and, as a consequence, an artificial obstacle to socio-economic development of modern Russia.

Key words: identification of citizens, a universal electronic card, the interpretation of Christian texts, spam, mass panic.

Gorushina E. Alteration influence of international conjuncture to situation in the Caucasian region / annotation

Goryushina Evgeniya – junior scientific worker. Institute of socio-economic and humanities research of Southern scientific center RAS. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The notion “political risk” in foreign political analytics was introduced in the quality of country risk component with the aim to explain a row of failure reasons of this or that country, not connecting directly with financial and economic factors. In the last decade, research of political risks is especially actual. However, because of corresponding researches interdisciplinary character, there is no proper attention to political risk in academic political science, that is why “political risk” is frequently determined as “political instability”.
Political leaders on data aggregation exist with a goal to form indexes (as a rule, quantitative) of political risks. Particularly, “Marsh”, who in its turn rests on research data of the company “BMI Research” – the leading expert in the sphere of political analysis and credit risks. Political risks interactive map was prepared in the result of teamwork in 2016. According to this research, terrorism and political violence, armed conflicts, powerful political actions, oriented to destruction of existing political systems, and also permanently low prices on commodities are considered to be the most significant political risks.
“Marsh” experts from all the governments of Black sea region especially emphasize Ukraine, Moldavia and Armenia as countries with the highest index of political risk – 43,10 (in the short-run), and 39,60 (in in the longer term), 51,30 (in the short-run) and 51,10 (in in the longer term), 54,40 (in the short-run) и 59,60 (in the longer term) accordingly. At that stably medium (“orange”) indexes of political risks are preserved at all the other region governments. This shows that “Marsh” experts predict violence escalation in Nagorny Karabakh in connection with Azerbaidjan threats. Nevertheless, close connection of Armenia with Russia acts as constraining factor, particularly expressing in Russian military presence on the territory of Armenia that restricts Azerbaidjan actions.
Also there are the following political risks, specific for Black sea region countries:

  • Georgia Euro-Atlantic intensions, situated at the height of their development,
  • natives of the North and South Caucasus republics join the rows of prohibited in Russia terroristic organization “ISIL”,
  • macroeconomic stability of countries in the region is under the pressure – currencies of region’s countries are significantly devaluated in the height of the fast currency transfers fall from abroad and stagnation in investment sector,
  • social and internal political problems (mass protests and constitutional reform in Armenia, activation of oppositional “United national movement” in Georgia under the conditions of complex economical situation and non-systemic Islamic opposition in Azerbaidjan),
  • unstable positions of the present government in Moldova, rent by competition for the power,
  • conflict in the South-East of Ukraine, which complicated relations with neighboring Russia for many years, under continuing poor perspectives of the country economy,
  • uncertainty around possible dialogues development trends with regional powers – Turkey and Iran.

The work is accomplished within the frames of State task realization on 2016 № 007-01114-16 SR, project “Geopolitical transformations in Caspian-Black region: instruments on instability maintenance” according to the program of fundamental researches of RAS № I.13 presidium.

Key words: risk, political risk, country risk, the country`s Black Sea region, geopolitics, region.

Dontsova M. The protest potential of black sea region area under the conditions of the new electoral cycle (on the example of Krasnodar region) / annotation

Dontsova Maria – candidate of social study, scientific worker. Institute of socio-economic and humanities research of Southern scientific center RAS. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The researchers have presented the analysis of the potential protest of the Black Sea area in the background of the development of a new electoral cycle between 2016-2018. The analysis shows that in Russia as a whole (according to the expert opinion) protest activity will increase. Protests related to the elections in Russia (the State Duma elections of the President), as well as the dissatisfaction of the population a significant reduction in quality of life, will wear, as opposed to the "Marsh" protest movement 2011-2013 a regional rather than nationwide character. The article shows the feature of the Black Sea area as a multiethnic, crossborder and strategically significant macro-analyze possible risks associated with the onset and development of a new electoral cycle. It is shown that the main threat to the stability of the macro-region in the development of the electoral situation is extremist movements, "playing" in the ethnic conflicts that, in relation to all the growing influx of migrants to the region, have considerable potential for conflict.
As the factual data are the results of sociological research, conducted in the Krasnodar region in June 2016 and aimed at the study of the socio-economic situation of residents of the province, interethnic situation and measurement of potential protest in the region. In the frame of research in the article there have been discussed the following areas of analysis: assessment of the level of inter-ethnic tensions in the Krasnodar region, related to the migration policy, the level of life of the inhabitants of the region, assessment of the potential for protest and a description of the socio-demographic parameters, method of binary logistic regression was used to assess the significance of protest activity factors. Analysis of data from empirical research was made the general conclusion that the Krasnodar Territory does not stand out from the average indicators for the level of protest potential. The tendency of the population to the manifestation of protest activity in the region is due not so much socio-demographic factors, as personal security factors, for example fear of life and social well-being.

Key words: protest activity, electoral cycle, the threat of stability regions, migration policy, inter-ethnic situation.

Savelyeva O. Basic spheres of economic activity of the Armenians in the South Russia / annotation

Savelyeva Olesya – post-graduate student. Institute of social and region study. Southern federal university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The significant growth of the Armenian diaspora in the South of Russia explains the interest in the adaptation strategies of this group of migrants. The study of their experience in the integration of a new socio-cultural environment that allows to identify the components of effective adaptation strategies. One measure of the success of the adaptation is to acquire social status in the new social and economic environment. The main areas of economic activity of Armenians are presented on the example of the Rostov Region and Krasnodar Territory.
Active economic activity of the Armenian diaspora in Krasnodar region, combined with high adaptability to market conditions contributed to an increased in comparison with the native majority of the material prosperity of the Armenian population. Not the last role was played by the fact that Russia has directed quite competitive part of Armenians, often not inferior to the level of education in Russian in Russia. In Krasnodar, educated and mobile groups of professionals, managers, entre-preneurs was much less than in the capital. But here, the Armenians, in comparison with the dominant Russian population, were presented in a sufficiently weighty proportions in groups of skilled labor.
In socio-professional terms urban Armenian population of Kuban shows traditionally high orientation on trade. It is significant that even the results of the population census of the Russian Empire in 1897 in Ekaterinodar more than 50% of the Armenian population were engaged in trade, diversified intermediation and lending. According to the 2002 census only 8% of the Armenian population is involved in trade in the Krasnodar region. But still this kind of economic activity prevalent in the Krasnodar Armenians ahead of the same period among the Russian population is almost 2 times, and explains the smaller representation of Armenians among employees. Stable reduction of the share-Armenian traders can be explained by the majority of the chosen adaptation model - life strategy only for the first generation of migrants.
Compared to the Russian Armenians in the Krasnodar region are less represented in the fields of education, industry and agriculture. A smaller representation of Krasnodar Armenians in agriculture can be explained partly by the fact that historically predominantly urban vector ethnic migration was partly forced phenomenon. As in the Krasnodar Territory, in the XXI century, the largest share of the Rostov Armenians found themselves in the wholesale and retail trade. In other areas of the employment share of Russian and Armenian population is almost the same except for an industry where there is a smaller proportion of the Armenians.
Indicating the presence of the representatives of the Armenians in a number of professional associations "Russian" regions of Southern Russia, it is now becoming more and more significant. At the same time it is not just about trade or services. There is expansion and transformation of the original socio-professional structure of the gainfully employed Armenian population. Commerce and mediation "bias" of Armenians begins to flourish under the development of new social and industrial niches, increase the presence of its representatives observed in many professional societies and social hierarchies South Russian regions, which is an indicator of successful integration.

Key words: Armenian Diaspora, the south of Russia, the urban population, the Armenian population, Russian population, migration, agriculture.

Davydenko E. Khanty in formation conditions of educational and social environment in the north / annotation

Davydenko Ekaterina – candidate of philosophy, professor assistant. South-Ural state university (national research university). Nizhnevartovsk, Russian Federation.

The indigenous peoples of the Ugra territories have ancient history. Model relations with the nature of these peoples, as known is other than that of the civilized world. Developing together with the community, they learned to survive without doing violence to nature, including those of other human races. The author aims at considering the historical stages of social development of the indigenous peoples of the Khanty for more profound and many-sided presentation of the problem of socio-cultural relations and adaptation of small nations to the modern society. It is shown that with the development of the Russian state there was going systematic social development of indigenous peoples of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Region. In the environment of indigenous Khanty it was gradually being developed the literacy, documentation systems; business relationship became more formal; schools, boarding schools were opened; measures were undertaken to preserve the Khanty language and national culture.

Key words: indigenous peoples, Ostiaks, Khanty, traditional culture.

Uznarodov D. The Cherkessk issue in the South Russia: inner challenges and geopolitical risks / annotation

Uznarodov Dmitry – candidate of political study, junior scientific worker. Southern scientific center RAS. Laboratory of Cossacks. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

Scholars are considering the problem of aggravation "Circassian issue" in the south of Russia, which took place in 2007, after the city of Sochi was the capital of Winter Olympic games in 2014. Traditionally, the "Circassian issue" refers to the process of entering the Circassian ethnic group in the Russian Empire, which began at the end of the XVIII century and formally ended in May 1864 after the end of the Caucasian War.
It is noted that to date the history of the Circassian people is often the subject of speculation by certain political forces, standing on the position of ethnic nationalism and pursuing their own specific goals. Almost immediately after Winter Olympic Games in 2014, a number of Circassian public organizations have criticized the holding of sports events in the region. In particular, against the games there were organized social movements such as the "Circassian congress", "Circassian International Association" and "Worldwide Circassian Brotherhood". Numerous Circassian diaspo-ras didn’t stay aside, they created the committee so called "No Sochi 2014", which brought togeth-er about 30 Circassian movements and organizations around the world. It is emphasized that nowa-days, there are three basic requirements that are put forward to the Russian authorities the Circassian national movement: 1) recognition of the Russian events of the period of the Caucasian war a genocide of Circassians; 2) assistance to the repatriation of Circassians to their historic homeland; 3) creation of a single Circassian subject of the Russian Federation.
In a future prospect, the Russian authorities are not likely to bring into life all these require-ments. One of the reasons is that the policy of the Russian Empire in relation to the Circassian ethnic group does not fall under the definition of genocide, stated in the UN Convention "On Prevention of the Crime of Genocide and Punishment." According to the author, we should differentiate two notions "genocide" and "war": unlike war, genocide is an intentional crime, its purpose to ex-terminate a race or an ethnic group. The second reason why the authority can’t implement the de-mands of Circassian public organizations of the requirements is that the decision on the relocation to the territory of the Ottoman Empire in the XIX century was taken by Circassians, mostly of their own free will, which was obtained due to the propaganda carried out by Muslim clergy, with the support of the Turkish government and diplomatic structures of the UK. As for the third require-ment, the inability to implement it is stipulated for the fact that it carries a serious threat to the terri-torial unity of the Russian state. The project of creation the «Great Cherkess Republic» has existed since the beginning of the 90s, and the first requirement from Circassian national movement to leave Russia were made in the autumn of 1992. Availability of this project proves the desire of certain forces to undermine the national security of the Russian Federation, and also to make contribution to the weakening of the country`s geopolitical position in the region.

Key words: Circassian question, the national movement, genocide, ethnic group, state, terri-torial integrity and nationalism.

Don State Technical University
Tbilisi State University
Moldavian association of international law
DANUBIUS University
Varna Free University 'Chernorizets Hrabar'