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Drobotya N., Chaplygina E., Kamalova O., Sklyarova E. Contribution of researchers of Rostov state medical universityto health development of Black Sea region / annotation

Drobotya Natalya – Ph.D. of medical study, professor. Rostov state medical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Chaplygina Elena – Ph.D. of medicine, professor. Rostov state medical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Kamalova Olga – candidate of philosophy, associate professor. Rostov state medical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Sklyarova Elena – candidate of history, associate professor. Rostov state medical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

For the first time considered contribution of scientists and doctors of Don region –К. S. Agadzhanyants, Z.N. Grzhebin, М.М. Gardashyan, P.P. Kovalenko, who were working at Rostov State Medical University and made a contribution in development of medicine and health science of different Black Sea regions – Crimea, Turkey, Georgia, Romania, Bulgaria. Obtaining of knowledge and experience in medical activity, they were working and teaching not only in Warsaw and Don universities, but also in Sophia and Constantinopolitan universities, defended Crimea and Sevastopol during the Great Patriotic War.After Russian revolution in 1917 psychiatrist, neurologist, professor, doctor of medicine, graduate of the medical faculty of the Imperial Military Medical Academy of St. Petersburg K. S. Aghajanyants emigrated to Turkey for reasons of policy. Student of V. Bekhterev participated in the IX Pirogov Congress with report on the role of psychotherapy in dermatology, trained in Lisbon, Berlin, was a consultant on nerve diseases of the Southern (Caucasian) Front, worked in the Red Cross, taught at University of Constantinople and Sofia University. Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor Z.N. Grzhebin was known in the USSR as a dermatovenereologist, he worked in Rostov-on-Don, Sochi, and Crimea. A graduate of the medical faculty of Kazan University, during the First World War, he as K.S. Aghajanyants, was on the Caucasian front, trained in Berlin. Professor Z.N. Grzhebin was a member of the board of the All-Union Society of Dermatovenerologists, dealt with problems of syphilis, skin lesions with poisonous substances, and the treatment of skin diseases in resort of Sochi-Matsesta. He took part in work of the expert commissions of the Ministry of Health of the USSR, held the posts of the dean and deputy director of Rostov Medical Institute, was head of the dermatological clinic and scientific part of the scientific research balneological institute of Sochi. Together with him worked native of present-day Turkey, the director of the Rostov Medical Institute M.M. Gardashian, whose fate was still classified in the state archives of Russia and the Rostov region after unreasonable political repression. Having headed work of Rostov Medical Institute, while holding the post of director, as well as an associate professor of the department of surgery faculty, in 1936 under his leadership a number of students of the "Fiery Release" of 1941 who during the Great Patriotic War rendered medical assistance to inhabitants of Crimea, defending Sevastopol, Rostov-on-Don, Stavropol, Novorossiysk. P.P. Kovalenko, graduate of the Fiery Release, after the war, headed the Department of General Surgery, became a Rector of Rostov Medical Institute, was first in the USSR to organize a regional tissue bank that provided donor tissues to the hospitals of Crimea and the North Caucasus, and represented the USSR in Romania in exchange of experience. Studies of the fate of doctors and Don scientists who made a significant contribution to the development of medicine and health in the regions of the Black Sea region are interdisciplinary and international. They reflect the development of the internal and foreign policy of the USSR, the difficult period of political repression, forced emigration, and the exchange of medical experience of the universities of Black Sea region.

Reshetnikova E., Sklyarova E., Kamalova O. Stambul and Sofia universities in the destiny of the scientist-biochemists and the doctors of the world / annotation

Eleonora A. Reshetnikova – candidate of biology, associate professor. Rostov state medical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Elena K. Sklyarova – candidate of history, associate professor. Rostov state medical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Olga N. Kamalova – candidate of philosophy, associate professor. Rostov state medical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The article for the first time compares the formation features of the scientific and pedagogical staff of the Istanbul and Sofia universities in the XX century. This topic has not received comprehensive coverage in the domestic historiography on the history of medicine and pharmacy, chemistry and biochemistry. Istanbul University has firmly entered the scientific world community, especially after the scientific discoveries of the medical faculty graduate of this university A. Sandzhar. Professor of Biochemistry and Radiology A. Sandzhar in the XXIst century is one of the leading biochemists and molecular biologists of the world, whose scientific research was published at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom, in the encyclopedia of molecular biology in New York. The scientist shared the Nobel Prize with a Swede and an American with the phrase “for studying the mechanisms of DNA reconstruction”, explaining the mechanisms by which the cells protect genetic information from damage. Conclusions of scientists will form the basis for the development of further ways to struggle cancer diseases. A. Sandzhar became the first graduate of the medicine faculty of Istanbul university, who received the Nobel Prize in chemistry. Professor, founder of analytical chemistry, the first president of the “Bulgaria Chemists Union” Z. Karaoglanov, who formulated one of the first equations of electrochemical kinetics, became the author of the first Bulgarian textbook on analytical chemistry, published in Sofia University, glorified the Sofia University. Professor K. S. Agadjanyants taught in the Russian Imperial University of Warsaw, Don University during the First World War, and after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and political emigration he taught at the Universities of Constantinople and Sofia. This became a factor that determined for many years the silence of scientific research about his contribution to the development of the Don and the Black Sea science universities. Professors of the Istanbul and Sofia universities perfectly mastered several foreign languages, which allowed them to work in the universities of the world. Istanbul and Sofia universities have become centers of emigration, as well as training and research activities of the world’s leading specialists in the fields of medicine and pharmacy, chemistry and biochemistry, including Nobel Prize laureates.

Sklyarova E., Kamalova O. Features of the Formation of the British-Turkish Diplomacy of the Second Half of the XIX Century / annotation

Elena K. Sklyarova – candidate of historical sciences, associate professor. Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia.
Olga N. Kamalova – candidate of philosophical sciences, associate professor. Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia.

The article considers features of the formation of the British-Turkish diplomatic relations during the Victorian time. The diplomats and figures of the public health service who had the official and unofficial status during the Crimean War (1853 – 1856) and the Russian-Turkish War (1877 – 1878) defined the significant role in their development. Being engaged in parliamentary and diplomatic activity Austen Henry Layard was elected the lord-rector of the University of Aberdeen, he worked in the British Foreign Office, and he was appointed the first member of the commission of public works, which dealt with the issues of public health service. Considering his versatile abilities, periodic stay in Constantinople, knowledge of traditions of the Ottoman Empire he was appointed the ambassador of Great Britain in Constantinople. Before him, the British ambassador in Turkey the lord Stratford Canning took the influential position in Constantinople. This lord had a considerable impact on the formation of the Anglo-Turkish and Russian-Turkish relations. All the information obtained from H. Layard was transferred by the lord Stratford Canning in his reports about the situation in the Ottoman Empire to the British Foreign Minister. In this period in Constantinople there was a race for power between the Reform party, Sultan and Rashchid Pasha`s environment, various political groups. Turkey was in difficult economic and social situation, which was worsened by the influx of refugees and by the national and religious contradictions. The population movement defined the need of social reforms, new sanitary problems of army and the cities of empires. The British parliament carefully monitored the development of the Russian-Turkish relations on the eve of the Crimean War. The government of Britain was interested in disruption of the political relations between Russia and Turkey, and in the weakening of military-political power of the Russian Empire. The British press warmed up the negative attitude of Great Britain to Russia. Insanitary conditions of soldiers in the Crimea and Turkey became the subject of the parliamentary reports, having defined the formation of medical diplomacy. Successful maneuvering of the British government for the purpose of realization of their own military-political ambitions became the feature of the Anglo-Turkish relations of the Victorian time. London successfully used consequences of the Crimean War, knowledge and experience of the non-staff diplomats, their anti-Russians and pro-Turkish sentiments, the corresponding publications of the press for the weakening of the Russian Empire and the expansion of its own possession at the expense of Turkey.

Sklyarova E., Kamalova O. Crimean War: Medical and Social Characteristics and Consequences / annotation

Elena K. Sklyarova – Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Olga N. Kamalova – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The medical and social features and consequences of the Crimean War (1853 – 1856) are considered. Based on the historical and genetic research method, the author analyzes the process of creating an army health system, the problem of corruption in the context of the history of Great Britain, the Ottoman and Russian empires in the middle of the 19th century. Public health, nursing training, and army health care became a new field of medicine. The consequence of the Crimean War was the formation of women`s medical activities, the organization of state care for the wounded, the elimination of corruption in the army, which were carried out in the Crimean hospitals (in Sevastopol, Bakhchisarai, Karasu-Bazar, Kozlov, Simferopol), in Turkish hospitals (in Scutari, Renkio), Great Britain (London, Chatham), as well as in the USA and Japan. For the first time, the army`s health care received an official status and recognition, thanks to the joint activities of reformers from different countries of the world N.I. Pirogov, L.A. Beckers, E. Chadwick, N. Arnott S. Smith, W. Farr, Lord Herbert, F. Nightingale, L. Richards, E. Parks. The transformation of public health took place on the territory of military hospitals located in the Ottoman Empire and Crimea. It is shown that, having become an integral element of the international politics of the countries of the world, during the Crimean War, public health and nursing were separated from clinical medicine, becoming a new area of state medical care.

Don State Technical University
Tbilisi State University
Moldavian association of international law
DANUBIUS University
Varna Free University 'Chernorizets Hrabar'