Shenkao M. People of Caucasus and Black sea region: oratory skill / annotation
Muhamed A. Shenkao – Ph.D. of Philosophy, professor, member of the Russian Union of Philosophy, a well-known scientist of the Karachaevo-Cherkessk Republic. Cherkessk, KCR, Russian Federation.
Various forms of toasts are considered: from the time of the Nart epic to modern time. In our study we rely on materials of Sakieva A., KardangushZaramuk, Naloyeva-Zaura, Inal-Ipa Sh., Bigua S. “Khuekhu” (khokh – it is goodwill in a verbal form) – part of the traditional life and culture of peoples. Khokhs, as good wishes, are not always and not everywhere revealed, but only in this place and at a given time, i.e. at the moment of “pial’e” (time, the point of intersection of time and place). The place and time of the khokh utterance define its direction, its “depth”, etc. On the other hand, khokh is an art of folk eloquence, and as such it was not given to everyone.A person who undertook to speak a special khokh (toast), apparently, had to learn from others for a long time. It was believed that the speaker spoke beautifully in the name of God that God “tkh’e, anchva”, put in his mouth the highest, noble words of the people. In the epic “Narts” he was given to Sosruko, for his deeds in the name of people’s Nart goods.The great old man, the hero of the epic Nasren-Zhache, taking the word from the toastmaster, with a khokh, kind word, blesses Ashamez, Nartsky. To receive good wishes from the hero is no less important event than to obtain the khokh of the Gods, as he (the hero) has seen a lot, done a lot, i.e. he is almost godlike. In the system of education of the Adygea-Abkhazian knight consciousness, a significant role was played by words – infusions (suggestions), received through instructions in khokhs. A man somehow completed his education in the khokhs, he discovered new truths and expanses of being. Thus, one can see that khokhs can be different. They are pronounced on various occasions: the beginning of the peasant`s work, housewarming, coming out to the spring field, etc. Themountaineersalsohavethesacred khokhs about food on thetable, table generosity. Toasts were pronounced in the name of son-in-law or son, or daughter-in-law.Abkhazians-Christians have a lot of khokhs. The art of eloquence, goodwill, here, on the ancient land of Apsna, achieves high perfection, aristocratic spirit. At the table, Abkhazians strictly follow themselves and their neighbors: is “Apsuara” (“Abkhazianity”) respected?But through the Apsuara and Adyghenity, the peoples defend their national identity, their individual uniqueness, not willing to dissolve and disappear among other ethnic groups. The ability to pronounce khokh is an indicator of a person`s culturefor the peoples of the North and West Caucasus. Khokhsare not just words to the place and time, but words-feelings, word-concepts, words-sacral, organizing and subordinating people.Theconceptsofpeople’ beauty, itsmorality, behavior etiquette, truthareasif concretized and specificated in the toasts. The importance of this topic is shown for a deeper understanding and study of the Caucasus peopleculture.
Shenkao M. Culture of the Caucasus banquet table / annotation
Muhamed A. Shenkao – Ph.D. of Philosophy, professor, North Caucasus state humanities and technology academy, member of the Russian Union of Philosophy, a well-known scientist of the Karachaevo-Cherkessk Republic. Cherkessk, KCR, Russian Federation.
«Хъуэхъу» (verbatim: praise, boasting), khokhis good wish in verbal form, part of traditional life and culture of peoples. The place and time of the utterance of khokh define its direction, depth, complexity. On the other hand, khokh is the art of folk eloquence. They are pronounced for various reasons: the beginning of the labor of the peasant, the new moon, housewarming, the wedding, the first row of mown hay, the exit to the spring field, the end of sowing, etc. The ability to pronounce khokh for the peoples of the North and West Caucasus is an indicator of human culture. The slightest violations of drinking etiquette cause frequent or awkwardness, or a violent reaction. There is a lot of traditionalism here. It is shown that khokh is not just words to the place and time, but words-feelings, word-concepts, words-sacral, organizing and subordinating people. Based on the study, it was analyzed various forms of toasts: from the times of the Nart epicado to the present day. The culture of communication at the feast table is shown. It is emphasized that the Apsuara and Adyghea formed the style of thinking and behavior of the people of the Northern and Western Caucasus. The urgency of research of the given phenomenon for understanding and penetration into depths of national consciousness, historical memory and traditions of culture of the people is grounded.