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Kvesitadze G., Sadunishvili T. Plants as natural remediation tools / annotation
Giorgi Kvesitadze – Ph.D. of biology, professor, president of Georgia national academy of sciences. Tbilisi, Georgia.
As a result of production of chemicals, unpredictable growth of industry and transport, urbanization, the permanent increase of contamination of all biological sources by chemical compounds of toxic nature is observed. Naturally formed emission of poisonous gases, the washing of toxic elements out of ore during floods or earthquakes, formation by microorganisms toxic compounds in swamps, etc. are a very little input as compared with human anthropogenic contribution in environments contamination. Above 600 millions of tons of chemicals of are annually produced in the world. By different ways large amounts of these hazardous compounds or their incomplete metabolic transformations, still having high toxicity, are accumulated in biosphere significantly affecting the ecological balance. The great majorities of chemically synthesized stable compounds hardly undergo extra- or intracellular enzymatic transformations (plant protection and pest control agents, solvents and emulsifiers, etc.) and are especially dangerous for all kinds of organisms. Disposal of municipal sewage and wastes accumulated by industry should be also considered a priority for human settlements, as serious contamination source. Uncontrolled discharge of all kinds of wastes always creates functioning biological source of contamination. The elimination of contaminants from the environment by microorganisms of different taxonomic groups is a well established, genetically determined property, which has already been widely discussed. Plants ecological potential is under deep investigation in spite that its participation in creation of ecological balance has already been proved.