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Dzhioeva I., Gurieva L., Techov A. State Policy of South Ossetia During the Restoration of Agriculture in 1920-1930 / annotation

Irina K. Dzhioeva – Ph.D. in Economics, Associate Professor, South Ossetian State University, Tskhinval, Republic of South Ossetia.
Lira K. Gurieva – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Economics, Professor, North Ossetian State University, Vladikavkaz, Russian Federation.
Albert V. Techov – Ph.D. in Economics, Associate Professor, South Ossetian State University, Tskhinval, Republic of South Ossetia.

The article is devoted to the study of the unique historical experience of agricultural development in South Ossetia during the implementation of the new economic policy of 1920-1930. The authors focus on the problems of collective farm construction and agricultural cooperation in South Ossetia, as well as new mechanisms of state management in the agricultural sector of the economy during the study period. It is shown that since agriculture was not directly subordinated to the state by 1920, it was very difficult to coordinate the labor and economic activities of peasant farms, as well as to manage their innovative development; in addition, the situation was extreme and did not allow the use of administrative methods of management. The only thing that the state could afford during this period was to increase the efficiency of management of this industry by economic methods. Thus, there were new incentives for peasant farms to expand the volume of commodity production. As a rule, the agrarian-industrial transformation corresponds to the free market, especially in agriculture, but this was not typical for Russia attempts at market transformations in the agricultural sector were stopped for the first time by the revolution of 1917. As for the new economic policy, it was an effective market regulator that takes into account the current economic situation in the country, in particular, in the period under study– the reluctance of farmers to sell grain below the market price, and buy essential goods at prices several times higher above their cost, which in any reforms severely limits the amount of savings. In this situation, people only try to consume, not invest, because of distrust of the financial policy of the state. Using the successful experience of agricultural reforms during the NEP period can help solve the problems of sustainable rural development in South Ossetia in the XXI century.

Dzhioeva I., Gurieva L., Techov A. Features of The Development of Organizational-Industrial Structures of The Agrarian Sector in South Ossetia (1953 - 1970) / annotation

Irina K. Dzhioeva – Ph.D. in Economics, Associate Professor, South Ossetian State University, Tskhinval, Republic of South Ossetia.
Lira K. Gurieva – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Economics, Professor, North Ossetian State University, Vladikavkaz, Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Russian Federation.
Albert V. Techov – Ph.D. in Economics, Associate Professor, South Ossetian State University, Tskhinval, Republic of South Ossetia.

The article examines the problems of agriculture in the Soviet period and their causes; the consequences of the most popular reforms in agriculture carried out in the studied period are reasonably revealed, trends and results of the transformation of the organizational and production structures of the agricultural sector, as well as the economic and social consequences of the formation of vertical structures of the agro-industrial complex are revealed. The scientific work carried out a historical and economic study of the development of agriculture in South Ossetia with consideration of the features of conceptual approaches to the analysis of the economic transformation of agriculture in the conditions of the development of the socialist mode of production. The prerequisites and incentives for economic development, indicators of economic growth, as well as existing problems in the social and economic development of society in the period under study have been clarified.

Irina K. Dzhioeva, Nodar G. Caberty, Albert V. Techov Social Infrastructure Services as A Factor of The Economic Development of South Ossetia During the Period of The Planned and Administrative Economic System / annotation

Irina K. Dzhioeva – Ph.D. in Economics, Associate Professor, South Ossetian State University, Tskhinvali, Republic of South Ossetia.
Nodar G. Koberti – Ph.D. in Economics, Associate Professor, North Ossetian State University, Vladikavkaz, Republic of North Ossetia, Russian Federation.
Albert V. Techov – Ph.D. in Economics, Associate Professor, South Ossetian State University, Tskhinvali, Republic of South Ossetia.

Considering the opinion of a number of scientists, the revolutionary explosion in 1917 was not so much a natural change of economic formations, as a form of resolving the most acute contradictions of Russian society in the socio-economic sphere. One of the main contradictions was the lag of Russia from industrialized countries both in the direction of the development of technology and labor productivity and the general culture of the population. It is justified that the development of infrastructure services sector during the period of the planned economy contributed to economic growth and was important in solving the strategic tasks of the country`s economic development for the effective use of material and labor resources, since insufficient level of its development is a significant deterrent to achieving economic growth, which requires state policy strengthening in relation to infrastructure services sector. Objects of social and household infrastructure create opportunities to meet both the biological needs of a person for creation of conditions for his survival as a member of a social community, and from the point of view of his existence and realization as a person. The formation of these minimal needs and the process of their implementation in relation to the Soviet period are insufficiently studied, which is explained by certain socio-economic reasons, one of which is disregard for the social needs of a person. The study of the socio-economic needs of the population, including in the dynamics of its development, is necessary for the more complete understanding of the social policy of the Soviet state, and determining the degree of its influence on the daily life of the people.

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