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Sklyarova E.K. The problems of migration during the period of urbanization in Great Britain and Ireland / annotation

Sklyarova Elena Konstantinovna – candidate of history, professor assistant. Rostov state medical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russia.

The problems of migration during the period of urbanizationin the first half of the XIX century in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland are considered in the context of its economic and demographic transformations. The migration was determined new socioeconomic, sanitary and national problems of the towns, and became the factor of Great Britain social policy rise.Thus, the social problems growth appeared to be the migration consequence in the urbanization period of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Migration, industrial revolution, urbanization, formation of United Kingdom, peculiarities of economic and religious development of Ireland raised a question in the government about tax assessment alteration and system of parish assistance. Poverty of rural districts, growth of the cities in the north of England conditioned rural population outflow (south of England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales), necessity of parish assistance system alteration.

Key words: migration, urbanization, Great Britain, Ireland, pauperism, Napoleonic wars, United Kingdom, social policy.

Sklyarova E.K. Comparative aspects of scientific research of the urbanization problem / annotation

Sklyarova Elena Konstantinovna – candidate of history, professor assistant. Rostov state medical university, Rostov-on-Don, Russia.

In the article the comparative aspects of the urban research, as a multidimensional historical and demographic processes, a factor in increasing the role of cities and health care in the development of society are considered. The main directions of urbanity: the role of health, philanthropy, migration, epidemics, housing policy, health care employees in the development of public policy. Formation of Russian urbanism started in parallel with Britain, but finished conception of cities and urbanization has not been worked out. Among the issues that demand further study should include the problems of urbanization of the North Caucasus, the formation of regional social policy, healthcare and culture. Migration has preconditioned new socio-economic, legal, health, administrative, transportation, religious and national problems of cities. The urbanization of the North Caucasus and in the early twenty-first century is considered. It differs markedly from Europe. The percentage of rural and urban populations in the North Caucasus has a relative performance, while maintaining the traditional way of life, exerting some influence on the development of national and local development strategies. Interdisciplinary research methods necessary to analyze the social phenomenon of urbanization from the point of its evolution, and social consequences of global change.

Key words: urbanization, migration, social problems, public health, social policy, Great Britain, North Caucasus.

Sklyarova E. Crimean war and establishing of public health system in Great Britain / annotation

Sklyarova Elena – candidate of history, associate professor. Rostov state medical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

Crimean War of 1853 – 1856 is a factor of important socio-political and socio-medical reforms. Study of these cases is characterized as interdisciplinary. At the edge of Crimean War Great Britain press highlighted aspiration of the empire to capture rus-sian territories of Black sea region, also reforms and work of E.Chadwick, founder of public health system, were criticized, he was wanted to be away from members of par-liament and London oligarchs due to his extreme reforms and British corruption. The article represents several effects of Crimean War, its meaning for establishing of public health system in Great Britain, reforms and pioneering work of Edwin Chadwick, Flo-rence Nightingale, also brought up issues of urbanization, pauperism, migration, corruption, health care of cities and army. Developing ideas of utilitarianism and benthamism, E.Chadwick proved advantage of establishing of public health system, centralization of cities administration, anticorruption efforts. His undue dismissal was passing during Crimean War, preparation for abolition of serfdom and keeping of autocracy in Russia. In this period innovation seemed inconsistent to British people considering century principles for local government and nonintervention to domestic affairs of kingdom. Russia and its Black sea regions, which have become war objective for British Empire, were named as corrupted country by English press. But corruption in Great Britain, unique position of members of parliament and London oligarchs have become reasons for dismissal of founder of public health system in Great Britain. After Crimean War in cities there was a problem of social assistance for widows, street children, families with many children, epidemics. Issues of mortality, healthcare of cities and army also became an object of parliamentary debates, requiring constant interference of the government, establishing of social policy. Fresh impetus and acceptance of establishing of public health system, as well as a social policy in Great Britain have become evident in period of Crimean War after successful public activity of sister of Mercy F.Nightingale, who addressing the House with reports on morbidity level in army, highlighting existence of these social problems and peacetime in Great Britain and Black Sea regions.

Drobotya N., Chaplygina E., Kamalova O., Sklyarova E. Contribution of researchers of Rostov state medical universityto health development of Black Sea region / annotation

Drobotya Natalya – Ph.D. of medical study, professor. Rostov state medical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Chaplygina Elena – Ph.D. of medicine, professor. Rostov state medical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Kamalova Olga – candidate of philosophy, associate professor. Rostov state medical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Sklyarova Elena – candidate of history, associate professor. Rostov state medical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

For the first time considered contribution of scientists and doctors of Don region –К. S. Agadzhanyants, Z.N. Grzhebin, М.М. Gardashyan, P.P. Kovalenko, who were working at Rostov State Medical University and made a contribution in development of medicine and health science of different Black Sea regions – Crimea, Turkey, Georgia, Romania, Bulgaria. Obtaining of knowledge and experience in medical activity, they were working and teaching not only in Warsaw and Don universities, but also in Sophia and Constantinopolitan universities, defended Crimea and Sevastopol during the Great Patriotic War.After Russian revolution in 1917 psychiatrist, neurologist, professor, doctor of medicine, graduate of the medical faculty of the Imperial Military Medical Academy of St. Petersburg K. S. Aghajanyants emigrated to Turkey for reasons of policy. Student of V. Bekhterev participated in the IX Pirogov Congress with report on the role of psychotherapy in dermatology, trained in Lisbon, Berlin, was a consultant on nerve diseases of the Southern (Caucasian) Front, worked in the Red Cross, taught at University of Constantinople and Sofia University. Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor Z.N. Grzhebin was known in the USSR as a dermatovenereologist, he worked in Rostov-on-Don, Sochi, and Crimea. A graduate of the medical faculty of Kazan University, during the First World War, he as K.S. Aghajanyants, was on the Caucasian front, trained in Berlin. Professor Z.N. Grzhebin was a member of the board of the All-Union Society of Dermatovenerologists, dealt with problems of syphilis, skin lesions with poisonous substances, and the treatment of skin diseases in resort of Sochi-Matsesta. He took part in work of the expert commissions of the Ministry of Health of the USSR, held the posts of the dean and deputy director of Rostov Medical Institute, was head of the dermatological clinic and scientific part of the scientific research balneological institute of Sochi. Together with him worked native of present-day Turkey, the director of the Rostov Medical Institute M.M. Gardashian, whose fate was still classified in the state archives of Russia and the Rostov region after unreasonable political repression. Having headed work of Rostov Medical Institute, while holding the post of director, as well as an associate professor of the department of surgery faculty, in 1936 under his leadership a number of students of the "Fiery Release" of 1941 who during the Great Patriotic War rendered medical assistance to inhabitants of Crimea, defending Sevastopol, Rostov-on-Don, Stavropol, Novorossiysk. P.P. Kovalenko, graduate of the Fiery Release, after the war, headed the Department of General Surgery, became a Rector of Rostov Medical Institute, was first in the USSR to organize a regional tissue bank that provided donor tissues to the hospitals of Crimea and the North Caucasus, and represented the USSR in Romania in exchange of experience. Studies of the fate of doctors and Don scientists who made a significant contribution to the development of medicine and health in the regions of the Black Sea region are interdisciplinary and international. They reflect the development of the internal and foreign policy of the USSR, the difficult period of political repression, forced emigration, and the exchange of medical experience of the universities of Black Sea region.

Morgul E., Sklyarova E. Nikitsky botanic garden in Crimea in the context of botanic gardens formation-problem of Europe and Russia / annotation

Elena V. Morgul – candidate of Biology, associate professor. Rostov state medical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Elena K. Sklyarova – candidate of History, associate professor. Rostov state medical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

For the first time, the history and comparative aspects of thebotanic gardens formation in Europe and Russia, as well as the contributions of reformers and scientists working in Botanic gardens and World Universities are considered. In different years, they made a significant contribution to the development of themankindviews on the ecology and flora of the various Black Sea arearegions. Botanic gardens, as centers of science and education, appeared in the Hellenism period. They were later transformed into various parks and museums, becoming the foundation of the universities formation, the development of pharmaceutical education, the preservation of the ecology and the fauna of the regions of the world. In the 18th century, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Odessa, as well as Crimea, became the center of the development of the Botanic Gardens of the Russian Empire. It has been shown that public figures from France, England, Sweden and Russia had made a significant contribution to the establishment and study of the Botanic Gardens. Special attention has been given to the formation of the Nikitsky Botanic garden in Crimea. Duke de Richelieu, graph M.S. Vorontsov, H.H. Steven, E. Wolf contributed to its creation. The organization of the Nikitsky Botanic Garden began with the annexation of Crimea to Russia during the era of Catherine II and Alexander I. Since the 19th century, Crimea has become a new center for the collection of ornamental and medicinal plants, viticulture, exemplary garden art and ecology. The centuries-old activities of the Nikitsky Botanic garden of Crimea became the basis for the exchange of experience in studying and preserving the flora of Southern Russia as well as other countries of the Black Sea region. It was noted that the Nikitsky Botanic Garden had received various diplomas and awards, both in the Russian Empire and after the October Revolution in the USSR.

Reshetnikova E., Sklyarova E., Kamalova O. Stambul and Sofia universities in the destiny of the scientist-biochemists and the doctors of the world / annotation

Eleonora A. Reshetnikova – candidate of biology, associate professor. Rostov state medical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Elena K. Sklyarova – candidate of history, associate professor. Rostov state medical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Olga N. Kamalova – candidate of philosophy, associate professor. Rostov state medical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The article for the first time compares the formation features of the scientific and pedagogical staff of the Istanbul and Sofia universities in the XX century. This topic has not received comprehensive coverage in the domestic historiography on the history of medicine and pharmacy, chemistry and biochemistry. Istanbul University has firmly entered the scientific world community, especially after the scientific discoveries of the medical faculty graduate of this university A. Sandzhar. Professor of Biochemistry and Radiology A. Sandzhar in the XXIst century is one of the leading biochemists and molecular biologists of the world, whose scientific research was published at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom, in the encyclopedia of molecular biology in New York. The scientist shared the Nobel Prize with a Swede and an American with the phrase “for studying the mechanisms of DNA reconstruction”, explaining the mechanisms by which the cells protect genetic information from damage. Conclusions of scientists will form the basis for the development of further ways to struggle cancer diseases. A. Sandzhar became the first graduate of the medicine faculty of Istanbul university, who received the Nobel Prize in chemistry. Professor, founder of analytical chemistry, the first president of the “Bulgaria Chemists Union” Z. Karaoglanov, who formulated one of the first equations of electrochemical kinetics, became the author of the first Bulgarian textbook on analytical chemistry, published in Sofia University, glorified the Sofia University. Professor K. S. Agadjanyants taught in the Russian Imperial University of Warsaw, Don University during the First World War, and after the Russian Revolution of 1917 and political emigration he taught at the Universities of Constantinople and Sofia. This became a factor that determined for many years the silence of scientific research about his contribution to the development of the Don and the Black Sea science universities. Professors of the Istanbul and Sofia universities perfectly mastered several foreign languages, which allowed them to work in the universities of the world. Istanbul and Sofia universities have become centers of emigration, as well as training and research activities of the world’s leading specialists in the fields of medicine and pharmacy, chemistry and biochemistry, including Nobel Prize laureates.

Sklyarova E., Kamalova O. Features of the Formation of the British-Turkish Diplomacy of the Second Half of the XIX Century / annotation

Elena K. Sklyarova – candidate of historical sciences, associate professor. Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia.
Olga N. Kamalova – candidate of philosophical sciences, associate professor. Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia.

The article considers features of the formation of the British-Turkish diplomatic relations during the Victorian time. The diplomats and figures of the public health service who had the official and unofficial status during the Crimean War (1853 – 1856) and the Russian-Turkish War (1877 – 1878) defined the significant role in their development. Being engaged in parliamentary and diplomatic activity Austen Henry Layard was elected the lord-rector of the University of Aberdeen, he worked in the British Foreign Office, and he was appointed the first member of the commission of public works, which dealt with the issues of public health service. Considering his versatile abilities, periodic stay in Constantinople, knowledge of traditions of the Ottoman Empire he was appointed the ambassador of Great Britain in Constantinople. Before him, the British ambassador in Turkey the lord Stratford Canning took the influential position in Constantinople. This lord had a considerable impact on the formation of the Anglo-Turkish and Russian-Turkish relations. All the information obtained from H. Layard was transferred by the lord Stratford Canning in his reports about the situation in the Ottoman Empire to the British Foreign Minister. In this period in Constantinople there was a race for power between the Reform party, Sultan and Rashchid Pasha`s environment, various political groups. Turkey was in difficult economic and social situation, which was worsened by the influx of refugees and by the national and religious contradictions. The population movement defined the need of social reforms, new sanitary problems of army and the cities of empires. The British parliament carefully monitored the development of the Russian-Turkish relations on the eve of the Crimean War. The government of Britain was interested in disruption of the political relations between Russia and Turkey, and in the weakening of military-political power of the Russian Empire. The British press warmed up the negative attitude of Great Britain to Russia. Insanitary conditions of soldiers in the Crimea and Turkey became the subject of the parliamentary reports, having defined the formation of medical diplomacy. Successful maneuvering of the British government for the purpose of realization of their own military-political ambitions became the feature of the Anglo-Turkish relations of the Victorian time. London successfully used consequences of the Crimean War, knowledge and experience of the non-staff diplomats, their anti-Russians and pro-Turkish sentiments, the corresponding publications of the press for the weakening of the Russian Empire and the expansion of its own possession at the expense of Turkey.

Sklyarova E., Kamalova O. Crimean War: Medical and Social Characteristics and Consequences / annotation

Elena K. Sklyarova – Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Olga N. Kamalova – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The medical and social features and consequences of the Crimean War (1853 – 1856) are considered. Based on the historical and genetic research method, the author analyzes the process of creating an army health system, the problem of corruption in the context of the history of Great Britain, the Ottoman and Russian empires in the middle of the 19th century. Public health, nursing training, and army health care became a new field of medicine. The consequence of the Crimean War was the formation of women`s medical activities, the organization of state care for the wounded, the elimination of corruption in the army, which were carried out in the Crimean hospitals (in Sevastopol, Bakhchisarai, Karasu-Bazar, Kozlov, Simferopol), in Turkish hospitals (in Scutari, Renkio), Great Britain (London, Chatham), as well as in the USA and Japan. For the first time, the army`s health care received an official status and recognition, thanks to the joint activities of reformers from different countries of the world N.I. Pirogov, L.A. Beckers, E. Chadwick, N. Arnott S. Smith, W. Farr, Lord Herbert, F. Nightingale, L. Richards, E. Parks. The transformation of public health took place on the territory of military hospitals located in the Ottoman Empire and Crimea. It is shown that, having become an integral element of the international politics of the countries of the world, during the Crimean War, public health and nursing were separated from clinical medicine, becoming a new area of state medical care.

Elena K. Sklyarova, Olga N. Kamalova Parliamentary Investigations in Britain During the Crimean War / annotation

Elena K. Sklyarova – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in History, Professor, Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Olga N. Kamalova – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

In this research, parliamentary investigations in the UK during the Crimean War (1853-1856) are under consideration. On the basis of the historical-genetic method of research, the features of the domestic and foreign policy of the government of Aberdeen, which was dismissed after the end of the war, are analyzed. It is shown that there were disagreements in the government regarding the country`s entry into the war, the organization of medical and military departments. The war became part of a factional and cross-party struggle for power. During the Crimean War, soldiers of the British army died in military hospitals from epidemics of typhus and cholera, lack of food and medical supplies. The military expedition to the Crimea, undertaken by Great Britain using funds insufficient to carry out military operations, became the reason for parliamentary investigations and the resignation of the British government. The object of criticism of the parliament was the lack of vehicles, the outdated system of military training, medical and food security. Corruption in the British government and the army, the commission system was named as the reason for the death of British soldiers in the Crimea. Parliamentary investigations were considered a national affair, which was supposed to lead to a restructuring of the state system. The consequences of the war were the reorganization of the administration of the army and the care of the wounded, an attempt to overcome corruption in Britain and the resignation of the government.

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