Yurchenko Inna – Ph.D. of political study, professor. Chief scientific worker of political science and conflictology dpt. Institute of socio-economic and humanities research of Southern scientific center RAS; Rostov-on-Don. Professor of Kuban state university. Krasnodar, Russian Federation.
An attempt to prove dependence of national security protection problem solution of Russian state from the ethnocultural character factors influence with consideration of Black Sea region specificity is undertaken in the article. New geopolitical challenges are analyzed in the context of Cri-mea and Russia reunion and the new united South Federal district formation, problems of ethnocultural identities politicization, phenomena emersion of “hybrid wars” (“wars for identity, wars of memory” and etc.) Ethnocultural factors of the Black Sea region development, where socially-political processes are developed under the constant influence of globalization risks, situated under careful attention of the South scientific centre researchers RAS, about what empirical data of sociological monitoring, various proprietary materials and other actual information, received in the consequence of expeditions can speak.
In the context of the Black Sea region geopolitics always represents extremely significant strategic centre. Unstable and various migration directions induce disbelief spread of an old population, anxious and uncertainty feeling in preservation of existing economic and sociocultural order, customs and traditions. Cultural, language, confessional mosaic of polytechnic polysynthetic society requires rational way searching of interethnic and inter-confessional conflicts prevention. Four subjects of the Federation can be referred to Russian Black Sea region: Krasnodar region, Republic of Crimea, Sevastopol city and the Republic of Adygeya. In the process of Crimea and Russia reunion the new phenomena appear in the political field of interaction in the areal of Black Sea region governments.
The problems of ethnical, religious, linguistic, sociocultural mosaic, manifesting in a complex and conflict identity induce a special interest, and that is why an integrated situation analysis of ethnocultural factors of Russian Federation national security supplying at the regional level is required. Socially mutual relations between dominate ethnical groups and minorities can become strained in the result of informative-psychological technologies influence using in the context of Washington geopolitical appetencies, allotting itself a role of stability guarantee in the whole world. “Hybrid wars”, which are conducted against the row of states with a goal of separatism activation, radical nationalism, confrontation induction of ethnical groups for domination, are used on the basis of utmost “Russophobia” manifestation, radicalism and extremism at these territories. Danger decrease of Russian culture influence preserves in the separate regions of the Black Sea region, especially difficult integrated into the unite civilizational space of Russia.
The real boundaries narrowing of Russian influence in the Black Sea in the post-Soviet period led to emergence of the new challenges and threats for the regional security, that required to produce tactics of effective response to arising situations, and introduction of serious additions and corrections to the political strategy of Russian state, rejection from stereotypes in interaction with political players. It is necessary to speak about other threats and challenges of internal and external character for national security of modern Russian state in the Black Sea region that actualizes a systemic situational political analysis and conflictological expertise of the Black Sea region development.
Key words: ethno-cultural factors, geopolitical challenges, national security, the Black Sea region, "hybrid war", the politicization of ethnic and cultural identity, the administrative-territorial division.