ISSN 2414-1143


2020. N 2

Social and ethnocultural problems of the Black Sea peoples
(philosophical anthropology, philosophy of culture)

Makhrinova M., Makeenko I., Kashirina O. Formation of Ethnic Values of Personality in the Context of Ethnic Education / annotation

Marina V. Makhrinova – Ph.D. in Pedagogy, Associate Professor, North-Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol, Russian Federation.
Igor P. Makeenko – Ph.D. in Economy, Associate Professor, Technological Institute of Service (affiliated to DSTU), Stavropol, Russian Federation.
Olga V. Kashirina – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Associate Professor, North-Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol, Russian Federation.

Ethnic upbringing is a purposeful interaction of generations, as a result of which ethnic self-consciousness is formed that is adequate to treat oneself as a subject of an ethnic group, a sense of pride in their ethnic group, a positive attitude to the language, history, culture of their ethnic group, as well as a sense of respect and tolerance for representatives of others ethnic groups. The essence of ethnic education is the preservation, formation and development of the ethnic identity of the individual, his culture, self-identity, language based on the continuity of generations, taking into account the changing conditions. As a content and means of ethnic education, the development of ethnosocial roles is considered, the formation of which is the mastery of this role in accordance with age. To preserve their identity, integrity, independence, individual freedom, you first need to understand your ethnic upbringing. This is the first step and at the same time the main thread of life, it is not discrete, it is continuous, it starts from the moment of conception of a child and continues throughout life. However, at the same time, ethnic education is a deeply specific upbringing, it must penetrate the whole spirit of the family, the general educational institution, especially the initial link, and then, really, on the basis of the native, the education of a multicultural personality should be carried out. The ultimate goal of ethnic education is the upbringing of an ethnocultural personality, identifying himself with his own ethnos, which perceives the world through the prism of its national-specific features.

Key words: individual, personality, education, socialization, public relations, cultural and historical experience, culture of ethnos, ethnic culture, ethnocultural values, ethnocultural education

Smagina M., Tronina L. Problems of Preservation and Transmission of Domestic Traditional Culture: Philosophical Analysis / annotation

Maria V. Smagina – Ph.D. in Sociology, Associate Professor, Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute, Stavropol, Russian Federation.
Larisa A. Tronina – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute, Stavropol, Russian Federation.

In a traditional society, culture performed many complex functions; the leading one was the reproduction of a traditional collectivist personality. The whole society in the process of its existence reproduced this very culture: in labor, holiday, and everyday life. A significant role in this process was played by the ability to read, translate symbolic, symbolic information into senses. That is, performing a ceremony, singing songs, placing a certain pattern or embroidery, the representative of a traditional society should always have a clear idea: why exactly this action is necessary at the moment, which sign is male and which is female. With the violation of the integrity of the traditional society, a change in lifestyle, the traditional division of responsibilities, the whole cultural landscape is changing. The meanings that were invested in rituals and objects are lost, transformed sometimes even by the next generation of cultural bearers. It, like a mirror, reflects all the modernization processes that society has experienced. The root, structural parts of the culture are also preserved in it. In this regard, the question arises, which part of the culture preserves broadcast and presents to the young generation? This dispute has repeatedly arisen among professionals and there is no unambiguous answer to it. This is connected with historical difficulties, with those severe shocks that Russian society suffered.

Key words: cultural politics, values, popular culture, ethnic culture, syncretism, traditionalism, traditional society

Zholobova I. The Role of the Religious Component in the History of the Formation of Crimean Karaim Ethnoculture / annotation

Irina K. Zholobova – Assistant, Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The article provides historiographic information that allows us to consider various approaches to the problem of the emergence of Crimean Karaites, to reveal the main ethnoculturological and religious features of this now small people due to a combination of factors such as the specificity of the territory of their stay, neighborhood with various peoples, many of which are very close to each other in terms of the features of religion, language and individual traditions. The main content of the article is devoted to the study of religion (Karaism), religious worship, confession of faith, traditions of Crimean Karaites as an integral part of their ethnoculture. In addition, the conducted historical and cultural analysis allows us to refer to the question of the multinational nature of Crimea, currently the Republic of Crimea, a territorial subject of the Russian Federation, where many indigenous and non-indigenous peoples lived and live, distinguished by their ethnicity, culture and religion. Their coexistence could not but leave its mark in the process of forming the ethnoculture of Crimean Karaites, their identity. It is noted that modern conditions are associated with the strengthening of the processes of "ethnic revival" and, at the same time, with the activation of assimilation processes that erode ethnoculturological boundaries.

Key words: ethnoculture, religion, identity, Crimean Karaites, Karaism, the Republic of Crimea, assimilation, traditions

Ilyasovа R. Ethno-Cultural Component of Bilingualism in the Chechen Republic under Conditions of Real Monoethnicity / annotation

Raisa S. Ilyasovа – Ph.D. in Philology, Associate Professor, Chechen State University, Grozny, Russian Federation.

Most sociolinguistic works devoted to the problem draw attention to the fact that the main factors affecting the language situation are the social conditions of language functioning. They determine both the level of development of the language and the prospects for its preservation and development. In this regard, the following points can be noted about the linguistic situation prevailing in the Chechen Republic, the level and quality of the Chechen-Russian bilingualism in the past and present. The Chechen language in the past, like many other Caucasian languages, was used verbally and existed in the form of living dialects. Religious, philosophical, fiction, scientific and educational literature was published in the Chechen language later. Works of oral folklore, annals, chronicles were recorded, clerical work, training, private correspondence, etc. were conducted. The research results show a clear dependence of the level of the Russian language proficiency on education, age and socio-demographic affiliation. Recently, for example, there has been a clear age tendency among Chechens to switch to Russian as a language of communication, which is precisely connected with the migration process, more precisely, with relocation to other Russian cities due to the war. It can be concluded that the third generation of Chechens who migrated to the Russian cities will be active bilinguals with a predominant knowledge of the Russian language: for example, if the first generation of migrants understands and speaks Chechen, then the second usually only understands, but does not speak (or speaks poorly), and accordingly their children, the third generation will neither understand nor speak Chechen, because people do not speak Chechen with them. The Russian language as a means of interethnic communication is an objective phenomenon. But it should not be accompanied by the displacement of native languages from the sphere of use by the narrowing of their functions and the inhibition of their structural development due to destructive national-language policies. A reasonable, appropriate combination of bilingualism components is needed.

Key words: the Chechen language, native language, the Russian language, bilingualism, comparative description, sociolinguistics

(social philosophy)

Agapov E., Pendyurina L. Social Assistance in the History of the Black Sea Peoples / annotation

Evgeny P. Agapov – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Professor, Rostov State University of Economics, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Lyudmila P. Pendyurina – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The article considers the influence of ancient Greek charity on the social assistance of the Black Sea region peoples. Social work became a profession only at the beginning of the last century, but its roots go back to antiquity, when forms of social assistance began to develop among various peoples. It was then that a social assistance mechanism developed, which boiled down to the fact that the family, community and other traditional structures protected everyone. This mechanism of social assistance was characteristic of Tauris, Scythians, Sarmatians and other Black Sea peoples. The same relations were characteristic for Ancient Greece as well as for other states of the Middle East region until the era of antiquity, the beginning of which dates back to the second third of the 1st millennium BC. These relations was marked by the dominance of community ties and the inherited Basileus power as well as the underdevelopment of private property. However, in the 8th century BC in Ancient Greece, structural transformations began, private property relations, the dominance of private commodity production, the exploitation of slaves, the absence of strong centralized power and the policy of self-government came to the fore. With the transformation of the state into an instrument of domination of private owners, social assistance was of a class nature, which manifested itself in the fact that slaves were actually deprived of it. On the other hand, charity, which manifested itself in the organization of public meals, the distribution of money to the needy, the construction of churches and baths through private donations, and other events, became an integral element of the antiquity`s public life. According to the authors, we can talk about two channels of influence of ancient Greek charity on the social assistance of the Black Sea peoples. The first of these channels called direct is associated with the creation of Greek colonies along the Black Sea coast. The second channel can be called indirect, since it was mediated by the culture of Ancient Rome. At the beginning of the 1st millennium in ancient Roman society, a contradiction arose between the need for social assistance and the limited possibilities for its implementation, which was removed by Christianity. According to Christianity, mercy follows from love, which coincides with the essence of God and charity is a practical expression of mercy. Therefore, the spread of Christianity that began in the Black Sea countries in the 4th century contributed to the development of charitable activities in them.

Key words: social work, social assistance, family, community, hospitality, beggars, petition, charity, philanthropy

Dzhioev A. Dynamics of Inter-Regional Population Migration in the South of Russia / annotation

Alexander V. Dzhioev – Junior Research Fellow, Laboratory of Applied Sociology and Conflictology, Vladikavkaz Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladikavkaz, Russian Federation.

In December 2019, an epidemic of a new acutely infectious disease broke out in the Chinese city of Wuhan, which in two to three months turned into a pandemic of the coronavirus infection COVID-19. The epidemiological, economic, environmental, humanitarian and political crisis has begun on the planet. The world has never come across a similar situation. This is much more serious than what humanity has experienced in last epidemics, when they spread from one continent to another for decades. In early summer 2020, more than 6.5 million people were found to have coronavirus in the world, according to Johns Hopkins University. The article gives a general assessment of the enormous losses of the world economy and the economies of individual States that arose as a result of quarantine during the coronavirus pandemic of 2020, it is shown that, compared with previous crises, this one will be more destructive for the labor market and the exit from it will be longer. The coronavirus epidemic has become a powerful challenge for the Russian labor market. It is concluded that the deterioration of the situation in the Russian economy due to the coronavirus pandemic will lead to increased interregional migration in the coming years, which will negatively affect the parameters of the demographic situation and the quality of the labor market in most of the North Caucasian regions of Russia, and the predicted persistence of high unemployment is associated with high threats to socio-political instability and the growth of social conflict. The author formulated a number of proposals on mitigation of economic consequences of the epidemic and controlling the outflow of working-age population from the regions of the North Caucasus.

Key words: Covid-19 coronavirus pandemic, unemployment rate in Russia, population migration from the regions of the North Caucasus, mitigation of economic consequences of the epidemic

Akaev V., Abdulaeva Z. Saving the Ethnocultural Heritage of the Peoples of the North Caucasus as an Alter-native to Asocial Manifestations / annotation

Vachit Kh. Akaev – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Professor, Grozny State Oil Technical University, Grozny, Chechen Republic, Russian Federation.
Zaira E. Abdulaeva – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Dagestan State Medical University, Dagestan Republic, Makhachkala, Russian Federation.

The cultural traditions of the peoples of the North Caucasus are distinguished by their diversity, the mosaic appearance that has developed during their centuries-old creative activities. Regional ethnic and sociocultural reality forms the basis of a certain type of civilization, called Caucasus, which is rich in its material and spiritual heritage. The Caucasus civilization is local, colorful, diverse, unique, which is determined by its material and spiritual achievements, values which were left by the ancestors for younger generations, and the latter, contributing their share, give the legacy of the past a modern character. Caucasus civilization is connected with Eastern, Western civilizational types, Slavic-Russian world, that gives ethnocultural heritage a unique, special character. For many contemporaries, the ethno-cultural diversity of the peoples of the Caucasus, including the North Caucasus, is unclear, not because it is archaic, but because it is diverse, syncretic, and has experienced many developments from different cultures and civilizations. The preservation of the ethnic and cultural heritage of the peoples of the Caucasus and its understanding are now an extremely important problem in scientific and cultural terms.

Key words: ethnocultural heritage, traditions, Russia, North Caucasus, Dagestan, Chechnya, diversity, cultural artifacts, asocial processes

Dzhabrailov Yu. The Current Status of Ethno-Confessional and National-State Identity of Dagestanis / annotation

Yusup Dz. Dzhabrailov – Ph.D. in Politics, Senior Research Fellow, Regional Centre of Ethnopolitical Researches, Daghestan Scientific Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences, Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, Russian Federation.

The article examines the hierarchy of social group identities types (all-Russian, regional, ethnic and religious) based on the results of monitoring the ethno-contact situation in the Republic of Dagestan, in the southernmost region of the Russian Federation. It explains the inconsistency of the sociological study results of on the prevalence of all-Russian identity in the collective consciousness of Dagestanis and at the same time their sense of social affinity with ethnic and religious groups. The author draws attention to the inadmissibility of contrasting ethnic and religious identities with national (civilian) identities and considers the thesis about the direct relationship between the growth of ethno-confessional identity and a decrease in the level of national identification invalid. Since representatives of traditional faith in the region do not support the anti-state views of extremist religious movements. The author believes that if ethno-confessional identity prevails over national identity, it should rather be about omissions in the politics of identity. The study reveals the internal and external reasons for the high level of ethno-confessional identity of the population of the republic. In general, the article notes the tendency of cognitive prevalence of national (state) identity among Dagestanis and the dominance in their minds of a favorable attitude towards multiple identification.

Key words: national identity, ethnic identity, religious identity, culture, Republic of Dagestan

Magomedova M. The Role of Muslim Clergy in Countering Radical Ideology in the North Caucasus / annotation

Muslimat A. Magomedova – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Senior Research Fellow, Regional Centre of Ethnopolitical Researches, Daghestan Scientific Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences, Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, Russian Federation.

Over the past twenty years, state and municipal authorities, civil society institutions in the North Caucasus have gained great positive experience in countering religious extremism and terrorism. The Muslim clergy had a great influence on the socio-political processes in the republics of the North Caucasus. The leadership of the Spiritual Directorates of Muslims of Russia, the traditional Muslim clergy, and ordinary believers have been fighting against the spread of a radical religious ideology that distorts the basis of Islam for more than two decades. Back in the early 90-s, the Islamic newspapers "Assalam", "Nur-ul-Islam", "Islamic Herald" and the Spiritual Board of Muslims began to explain to the population the whole danger of the ideology of Wahhabism (the extreme form of Salafism, which is commonly called in the republics of the North Caucasus). “Wahhabis” in scientific and journalistic literature are considered to be followers of the religious-political current in Sunni Islam, which arose in the middle of the 18th century based on the teachings of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. Many modern followers of Wahhabism prefer to call themselves Salafiyun, i.e. “walking the path of righteous ancestors” (al-salaf al-salih) – the first generations of Muslims. The article sets the task of analyzing the effectiveness of ideological counteraction to religious extremism and terrorism in the North Caucasus, determining the role of representatives of the Muslim clergy in countering radical religious ideology. The main theological contradictions between the trends in Islam are analyzed. It is shown that representatives of the Muslim clergy play a significant role in the ideological opposition to religious extremism in the North Caucasus.

Key words: North Caucasus, Islam, religious and political extremism, religious extremism, Wahhabism, youth

(theory and history of culture)

Shishova N., Bondarev V., Tikidzhian R. The Azov-Black Sea Region as a Crossing of Cultures: Factors, Stages, Outcomes of Processes of Cultural Interinfluence / annotation

Natalia V. Shishova – Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Vitaliy A. Bondarev – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in History, Professor, Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Ruslan G. Tikidzhian – Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The issue of cultural interaction is highlighted, the relevance of which has increased significantly in the context of the world`s growing confrontation between globalization and counter-globalization. The urgency of this problem is evident in Russia as in the multinational State. One of the regions where such interaction took place most actively is the Azov-Black Sea region. The article examines the dynamics of cultural interinfluence processes in the region. The retrospective analysis has been carried out, which makes it possible to conclude that historically the Azov-Black Sea region has been a crossing of civilizations, where the migratory flows of Western and Eastern civilizations have been directed and where representatives of these civilizations have come into contact with each other. Periodization of intercultural contacts in the region, including a number of qualitatively different stages is supposed. It has been proved that within the boundaries of various stages the cultural influence of various peoples and civilizations has prevailed: the Greeks and the Romans, the Turkic-speaking nomads, the Turks, the Cossack communities, the Russian Empire. While in the era of antiquity the leading role in intercultural interaction was played by the Greeks and then by the Romans, who had a stimulating and guiding effect on the Iranian-speaking nomads of the Scythians and the Sarmatians, in the Middle Ages the situation changed seriously, which was connected with the collapse of the Graeco-Roman colonies due to the arrival of a new wave of nomads, this time Turkic-speaking, in the region. It is noted that the brightest example of active inter-ethnic and intercultural contacts in the Azov-Black Sea region and, at the same time, the extreme importance of these contacts in giving vitality to certain communities and state entities, is the Cossacks, which arose as a result of interaction of a number of different ethnocultural communities. The valid conclusions are the following, first, the leading trends in the Azov-Black Sea region were active inter-ethnic (intercultural) contacts, which resulted not only in the mutual enrichment of cultures and lifestyles of their participants, but also in the formation of new communities, such as the Cossacks; second, these contacts have acted and continue to act as a means of cementing and stimulating the development of multi-ethnic State entities, including Russia.

Key words: the Azov-Black Sea region, the Cossacks, intercultural communications, the Northern Black Sea region, ethnocultural dynamics

Khuako F. Gender in Prose as One of the Aspects of the Adyghe Ethnic Consciousness (First Half of the 20th Century) / annotation

Fatimet N. Khuako – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philology, Professor, Maykop State Technological University, Maykop, Republic of Adygea, Russian Federation.

We consider the image of a woman and its reflection in literature using examples of the work of Adyghe authors of the first half of the 20th century (H. Teuchezha, J. Tlyusten, A. Evtykh). The author turns to regional North Caucasian scientific works affecting gender issues, argues the idea of the peculiarity of this line among the Adyghe with their ethnic consciousness. It is concluded that there is little coverage of the image of a woman in literary criticism, especially in an ethnic (Adyghe) context. The traditionality of the Adyghe ethnic group is analyzed in detail; the problem of discrimination in relation to the Adyghe woman in the family; the charactero-logical series of the female image both in society and in the family, and in works: hard work, needlework, etc., as well as the ability to survive in a difficult situation. Based on a number of traits of a female character both in the ethnic group and in the works there is the assertion that it is permissible to consider the Adyghe woman’s right to positively influence conflict situations in society as evidence of the absence of any discrimination that could directly and fruitfully influence the development of centuries of ethnic consciousness.

Key words: gender, woman as an image, Adyghe, prose, ethnic group, first half of the 20th century

Dashkova E., Ivushkina E. “The Silk Route“ as a Tourist Resource / annotation

Elena V. Dashkova – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Chechen State University, Grozny, Chechen Republic, Russian Federation.
Elena B. Ivushkina – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Professor, Chechen State University, Grozny, Chechen Republic, Russian Federation.

The North Caucasus is one of the most beautiful and mysterious corners of the planet Earth. Amazing nature, majestic mountain peaks and ancient monuments attract numerous tourists. One of the important tasks of social and economic development of Russia is the creation of large-scale modern tourist zones or, as it is now said, destinations in the North Caucasus. The famous Silk Route, which played a unique role in the social, economic and cultural development of the regions of Eurasian space, was here centuries ago. The Silk Route (SR) is a grandiose trade route which connected the East and the West. It has caused the emergence of unique cities, historical monuments, customs and even states. In fact, it was a system of caravan roads leading from China to the countries in the Middle East and Europe. The Silk Route trails are resources for developing modern tourist routes. According to the World Tourism Organization (WTO) the Silk Route is the longest modern tourist route in the world. It covers Europe, Asia and Africa and links three oceans: Pacific, Indian and Atlantic. The Silk Route also passed through the southern territories of the Russian Federation and now Russia has become one of the active participants of the International Tourism Project "The Silk Route." In order to implement the international tourism project on this subject, it is necessary to develop new tourist routes based on the resources of the entities of the North Caucasus Federal District.

Key words: The Silk Route, culture, tourism, tourist route, tourist resources

Don State Technical University
Tbilisi State University
Moldavian association of international law
DANUBIUS University
Varna Free University 'Chernorizets Hrabar'