ISSN 2414-1143


2020. N 3

Socio-cultural problems of the Black Sea countries
(social philosophy)

Goncharov V., Tronina L., Khokhlova E. Socio-Philosophical Analysis of Labour Traditions: Ethnocultural Aspect of the Study / annotation

Vadim N. Goncharov – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Krasnodar University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Stavropol, Russian Federation.
Larisa A. Tronina – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute, Stavropol, Russian Federation.
Elena A. Khokhlova – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, North Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol, Russian Federation.

In the development of modern society, organizational and ideological educational activities are important. Successful realization of economic and social development is impossible without taking into account human factor, in particular skills and knowledge of people, their production experience. Therefore, cultural, economic and everyday traditions are now gaining real significance, especially in different regional conditions. The increasing interest in folk culture is determined not only by the needs of the spiritual sphere, but also by the practical conditionality and vitality of folk labor traditions. This creates the need to study cultural and historical experience of the people and their practical application. The range of problems related to labor traditions is very wide. Some of them are important for the whole country, while others have regional specifics. Domestic researchers consider labor traditions as a constantly operating element of folk culture, concentrating collective experience transmitted from generation to generation. Under the influence of socio-economic and economic changes, some of them become anachronism and die off, while others, transforming, retain their significance. Some of them are secondary forms generated by new production and living conditions, by both previous and new labor experience.

Key words: traditions, culture, ethnic processes, society, consciousness, education, values

Melnichuk P. Hybrid Nature of the Armed Conflict in The Syrian Arab Republic / annotation

Melnichuk Pavel – Military University of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russian Federation.

The essence and content of the armed conflict in Syria is considered through the prism of the concept of a hybrid war. The main focus is on the analysis of various points of view on nature, goals, instruments of a hybrid war, presented in the domestic and foreign literature. It is shown that in modern international conflicts, the emphasis is increasingly shifting towards the integrated use of political, economic, information and other non-military measures implemented with the support of the military force. The need to bring the defense strategy of the Russian Federation in line with the challenges and threats of the information era, the development of the Russian strategy for a hybrid war and a counter-hybrid war is justified. It is concluded that it is important to understand the basic principles of an information-psychological war as well as the need for correct and successful use of sign and symbolic means within the framework of an information confrontation.

Key words: nonclassical war, information war, hybrid war, proxy war, colour revolution, asymmetrical war, civil war in Syria, armed conflict, humanitarian mission, special operations forces, cyber-attacks

Keleberda N., Atanesyan A. Informational Society and Optimization of Education in the Current Circumstances: Russian and Armenian Experience / annotation

Nina G. Keleberda – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Rostov Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Arthur V. Atanesyan – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Politics, Professor, Yerevan State University, Yerevan, Armenia.

The introduction of technology into education leads to a revision of the boundaries of knowledge: disciplines disappear, the "territories" of sciences are eroded, making room for (so to speak) "network research." The hypothesis is put forward that the optimization of education is both a condition and a consequence of an ideological shift. The content of the concept "optimization of education" in the context of the development of digital technologies in education is considered, defining "optimization" as a technique. The novelty of the research is presented by a comparative analysis of the development of the process of optimizing education in Russia and in Armenia. The relevance of this approach is due to the need to coordinate efforts to develop the information society both in the format of bilateral relations between Russia and Armenia, and within the Black Sea states. The authors rely on the analysis of the concepts of national developments, which fix the prospects and goals of the development of information technologies and the information society in Russia and Armenia. Having studied the strategic sectors and technological spheres of Armenia, it is concluded that Armenia, being a regional leader in the development of information technologies, supplies most of these developments to the USA and Canada, and a smaller part to Russia. The conclusion confirms the hypothesis that the introduction of new digital technologies in the educational process carries certain risks due, on the one hand, to the quality of educational services in the context of optimizing the educational process, and on the other, to a radical change in the consciousness and thinking of a modern person with using the same optimization.

Key words: Russia, Armenia, information society, optimization of education, digital science, digitalization, information technologies

(philosophical anthropology, philosophy of culture)

Khudina J., Wiegel N., Shishkanova J. Well-Managed Fears of the Culture of Globalization: Orthorexia / annotation

Julia S. Khudina – Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Narine L. Wiegel – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Professor, Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Julia O. Shishkanova – Student, Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The article deals with the influence of modern culture and society on the formation of the level of personality perception. Features of human interaction with environmental reality in extreme conditions (self-isolation period in conditions of COVID-19 pandemic) are considered separately. Features of social influence on formation of so-called social fears are shown. The problem of fear has its own history and remains relevant in modern society. Together with the development of society, fear takes on new forms, and unlike, for example, the fear of primitive man – darkness, loneliness and unclean power – the fears of modern man are directed by the cultural dominants of globalization into the field of science. Fear is not only inevitable, but also necessary, it is called upon to energize the forces of a person and stop him in moments of danger. Fear also has a number of negative qualities, directing human actions into a destructive channel. Only through rationalization is it possible to get away from a negative scenario to a positive one, thus managing your fear. The ability to adequately perceive reality, constructive marketing offers is the principle of common sense of a person. Analyzing a healthy lifestyle as a brand and direction of the culture of globalization, and in particular proper nutrition, the authors of the article call for a responsible approach to the new proposals of the consumption society in the context of the formation of human habits and lifestyle of the 21st century.

Key words: beauty, proper nutrition, healthy lifestyle, controlled fears, globalization, orthorexia

Evstropov V., Trushkova E. Modern Ideas About Ecogenesis / annotation

Vladimir M. Evstropov – M.D., Associate Professor, Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Ekaterina A. Trushkova – Ph.D. in Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

A.V. Kozachek proposed to call the process, characterizing the historical development of the content of ecological science and pedagogy, ecological genesis. In this regard, he proposed an approach according to which, in order to understand the essence and current state of the object of the professional activity of an environmental engineer, it is necessary to analyze the features of the development of environmental science in terms of the formation of a set of environmental knowledge as a tool of "transfer" in the learning process from a teacher to the listener in its development during historical time. From our point of view, ecogenesis can be considered much broader than just the evolution of the object of ecological knowledge and ecological knowledge. If we proceed from the fact that etymologically ecogenesis can be regarded as the origin of ecology, then its study should reflect the widely represented historical-ecological composition of its various aspects of theoretical and applied nature. Analyzed, developed by various researchers, methodological approaches, one way or another reflecting various aspects of ecology. Approaches to the study of ecological genesis are possible from the standpoint of classifications for the construction of ecological laws and theories, the periodization of ecology based on a change in paradigms, based on an analysis of the development of theoretical research in ecology, the study of ecology from the standpoint of a systemic and formalized mathematical approach. We believe that the whole set of analyzed approaches can serve as the basis for the doctrine of ecological genesis, reflecting the most diverse aspects of the emergence and development of ecology as a science and environmental education for the successful practical activity of a specialist in the field of ecology.

Key words: ecology, ecogenesis, periodization of ecology, conceptual systems, classification of the construction of ecological laws

(theory and history of culture)

Petrova Yu., Bukreyeva V. Culture of The Peoples of the Balkan Peninsula: History and Modern Influence of Turkey / annotation

Yulia A. Petrova – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Rostov State University of Economics, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Valeriya V. Bukreyeva – Student, Rostov State University of Economics, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The article examines the cultural penetration of the Ottoman Empire into the territory of the Balkan Peninsula. The once developing peoples of the Balkans, overcoming their own crises, are becoming an indispensable goal of a rapidly emerging empire. The proximity to Europe and close interaction with it became a decisive factor for its conquest, as well as the inability of the allied countries to resist the Ottomans. The gradual seizure led to the complete elimination of most of the existing in the 12th century independent states. For the most part, the dialogue of cultures took place as a forced assimilation. The result was the complete displacement of a foreign culture outside its own territory. Despite this, some of the cultural aspects have firmly entered the life of ordinary people and have become entrenched in it as part of their own culture. This article is dedicated to identifying these entrenched traditions as well as Turkey`s contemporary influence in the Balkans.

Key words: Balkans, Turkey, culture, language, traditions

Dzhioeva I., Gurieva L., Techov A. State Policy of South Ossetia During the Restoration of Agriculture in 1920-1930 / annotation

Irina K. Dzhioeva – Ph.D. in Economics, Associate Professor, South Ossetian State University, Tskhinval, Republic of South Ossetia.
Lira K. Gurieva – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Economics, Professor, North Ossetian State University, Vladikavkaz, Russian Federation.
Albert V. Techov – Ph.D. in Economics, Associate Professor, South Ossetian State University, Tskhinval, Republic of South Ossetia.

The article is devoted to the study of the unique historical experience of agricultural development in South Ossetia during the implementation of the new economic policy of 1920-1930. The authors focus on the problems of collective farm construction and agricultural cooperation in South Ossetia, as well as new mechanisms of state management in the agricultural sector of the economy during the study period. It is shown that since agriculture was not directly subordinated to the state by 1920, it was very difficult to coordinate the labor and economic activities of peasant farms, as well as to manage their innovative development; in addition, the situation was extreme and did not allow the use of administrative methods of management. The only thing that the state could afford during this period was to increase the efficiency of management of this industry by economic methods. Thus, there were new incentives for peasant farms to expand the volume of commodity production. As a rule, the agrarian-industrial transformation corresponds to the free market, especially in agriculture, but this was not typical for Russia attempts at market transformations in the agricultural sector were stopped for the first time by the revolution of 1917. As for the new economic policy, it was an effective market regulator that takes into account the current economic situation in the country, in particular, in the period under study– the reluctance of farmers to sell grain below the market price, and buy essential goods at prices several times higher above their cost, which in any reforms severely limits the amount of savings. In this situation, people only try to consume, not invest, because of distrust of the financial policy of the state. Using the successful experience of agricultural reforms during the NEP period can help solve the problems of sustainable rural development in South Ossetia in the XXI century.

Key words: South Ossetia, agricultural reform, collective farm-state farm system, personal household plots

(religious studies. theology)

Akaev V., Vagabova N. Interrelation Between Ethnic Culture and Religion: General and Specific Connections / annotation

Vachit Kh. Akaev – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Professor, Chief Research Worker, Comprehensive Research Institute named after H.I. Ibragimov of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Grozny, Chechen Republic, Russian Federation.
Naida M. Vagabova – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Dagestan State University, Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, Russian Federation.

The interrelation between "ethnic culture" and "religion" is conceived, identifying both general and specific aspects. Ethnic culture is regarded as a result of the activities of representatives of the ethnic group, which allowed them to communicate, consolidate, focusing on the search for prospects for their development. Traditional culture, national culture and mass culture are correlated with ethnic culture. Despite some proximity of these phenomena, they differ from each other, and in the course of their comparison, general and special aspects are distinguished. It is justified that religion is an integral part of ethnic culture, forming a certain worldview among the ethnic group, raising its spiritual level. The spiritual development of the ethnic group, along with folklore plots, based on religious values, are preserved in the ethnic culture itself. Historically outgrowing the volume of ethnic culture, religion spreads among different peoples, ceasing to be a part of the culture of an individual ethnic group, but at the same time becoming a factor in the unification of various cultural characteristics. When considering the interrelation between religion and nation, their specific relationship should be noted. Thus, being a component of national culture, religion takes an active part in the formation of national identity, spiritual consolidation and unity of people.

Key words: culture, ethnic culture, national culture, religion, Islam, Sufism, Wahhabism, North Caucasus

Nesmeyanov E. Religious and Secular Theories of a Lie in The Russian Philosophy of the 19-20th Centuries / annotation

Evgeny E. Nesmeyanov – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Professor, Chair, Department of "Philosophy and World Religions", Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The last third of the XX and the first decade of the XXI centuries. show the growth of scientific and scientific-journalistic works on the problems of the peculiarities and forms of existence of deception and lies in European culture and social life. Concepts have emerged that prove the necessity and value of certain forms of lying to preserve the state, family, and the implementation of real practice of communication between people. Some psychological and pedagogical works substantiate the idea of the importance of lying and deceit for the development of the child`s intellectual abilities and prosperity in the society of an adult. With all the variety of theoretical sources on this topic, there are much fewer generalizing philosophical and cultural studies of lies and deception. This article is an attempt to partially fill this shortcoming. The article begins with an analysis of the rather well-known phenomenon of “Russian lies” as a real mental feature of Russian culture, initially considered in fiction and religious philosophy in Russia (late 19th and first third of the 20th centuries). Based on the analysis of the works of F.M. Dostoevsky, I.A. Ilyina and L.N. Andreeva, shows the influence of the concept of lies of Augustine (Father of the Church of the 4th century) on the theory of "Russian lies" or "All-Russian lies". The author substantiates the decisive influence of Augustine on the views of Russian thinkers associated with the advancement of the problem of lies to the status of the most important moral, religious and socio-psychological theme of Christian theology. The transition of the problem of lies and lies from the Christian-colored religious-philosophical "paradigm" created by Augustine to the secular axiological view of L.N. Andreev, and then, to a complete change of emphasis and the identification of new meanings and facets of this problem Yu.M. Lotman. It is concluded that the theory of Yu.M. Lotman "closes" the problem of "Russian lies" as a negative characteristic of the Russian mentality, taking the phenomenon out of the field of religious philosophy and morality into the sphere of cultural studies. At the same time, the concept of Yu.M. Lotman does not refute the theory of Augustine, which retains its relevance for understanding the modern system of spiritual values in Russian culture of the XXI century.

Key words: falseness, deception, betrayal, duplicity, irony, lies, everyday lies, a virtuous lie, Russian lies, All-Russian lies, surreal speaking, alternative history, corrected reality, unmotivated deception, spiritual values, freedom, humanity, truth, morality

Grekov I. The Religious Ideas and Methods of Work in Gurdzhiyev's Doctrine / annotation

Igor M. Grekov – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Ryazan State University, Ryazan, Russian Federation.

The purpose of this article is consideration of Gurdzhiyev`s interpretation of a concept spiritual work and of methods of this work. The author emphasizes that studying Gurdzhiyev`s theory of the person, the system of movements and meditation techniques, the interrelation of anthroposophy of "The Fourth Way" and esoteric forms of Christianity many of Gurdzhiyev`s followers were direct participants of the events of life in Gurdzhiyev`s groups not only theoretically, but also practically. The sphere of their interests led to the research of such problems as "internal and external human life", "mechanics of human behavior", "work", etc. The author claims that Gurdzhiyev`s system of "self-improvement" is of considerable interest in today`s world and demands judgment in the context of religious and philosophical knowledge. The article gives several problems that, according to G.I. Gurdzhiyev, an ordinary person should certainly face if he does not realize his own "mechanicalness." The author reveals the essence of "The Fourth Way" of G.I. Gurdzhiyev, speaks of his religious and philosophical origins, writes about the need for preliminary preparation before using this methodology. The article also refers to the "point of support" from which the transformation of the inner spiritual world of the person should begin, lists the specific methods that the person who wants to comprehend the doctrine of G.I. Gurdzhiyev about "The Fourth Way" should use. The author emphasizes the need for daily "work on himself," and also details the obstacles that can prevent the person from achieving the desired result. The author lists seven areas of "internal work on himself," which can be found in the works of G.I. Gurdzhiyev, justifies the advantage of the anthroposophical system of G.I. Gurdzhiyev in comparison with other philosophical directions.

Key words: work, internal work, introspection, intentioned suffering, remorse, self-reminiscence, self-awareness

Zholobova I. Old Turkic Religious Beliefs as a Part of Spiritual Culture of Turkic-Speaking Peoples of the Crimea / annotation

Irina K. Zholobova – Assistant, Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The peculiarities of worldview and spiritual culture of Turkic people are considered, due to general historical, ethnogenetic, cultural and religious factors. The influence of the old Turkic nomadic component on the formation of the religious system and ethnoculture of peoples is noted. The main attention is paid to the features of the cult associated with the veneration of the most ancient deity Tengri, references to which are still found and indicate the syncretic nature, the presence of assimilated autochthonous beliefs in religious systems, in the part of spiritual culture of such Turkic-speaking peoples as the Crimean Karaites, the Crimeans and the Crimean Tatars. Information about Tengrianism is given, the characteristic of cult practice in relation to Heaven is given, the significance of the cult of ancestors and the cult of veneration of sacred trees is noted, which have until recently remained relevance for the indigenous peoples of the Crimea, especially for the Crimean Karaites.

Key words: Tengri, religion, the Crimea, Tengrianism, religious beliefs, folklore, the Crimean Karaites, the Crimeans, cult of ancestors

Hiyasova S., Mustafaeva M., Musaeva E. Forms of Conflict Regulation in Pre-Revolutionary Dagestan / annotation

Sarat G. Hiyasova – Ph.D. in Pedagogy, Associate Professor, Dagestan State Pedagogical University, Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, Russian Federation.
Maida G. Mustafaeva – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Professor, Dagestan State Pedagogical University, Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, Russian Federation.
Elmira Sh. Musaeva – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Dagestan State Pedagogical University, Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, Russian Federation.

The article is devoted to an important and relevant topic of reflection of pagan customs and rituals in the traditional culture of Dagestan (using the example of traditional Islam). The authors set a goal to differentiate the purely religious-canonical and actually surviving, pagan forms in this religion. As a result of the analysis of a whole complex of pagan customs and rituals: a pilgrimage to the mountains, the cult of saints, graves, the cult of deceased ancestors, magic, and comparing them with the existing norms of Islam, it was found that pagan rudiments were firmly entrenched in folk, traditional Islam. It has been established that at the present stage, these vestiges and cults continue to influence the ethical and moral norms of the peoples of Dagestan, since they are often perceived as purely canonical norms of Islam. This circumstance is often caused by numerous disputes and discussions in modern society. The essence of the discussions usually boils down to the following. The religious concept of Islam clearly defines the thesis of rejection of any innovations in religion. As a rule, innovations or new teachings mean everything that was somehow superimposed on Islam over many centuries, and that has nothing to do with early Islam of the period of the righteous caliphs. Hence the question is whether this or that phenomenon in religion is a pagan relic, a rudiment, or this canonically justified view is of particular relevance.

Key words: culture, religion, rudiments, paganism, Islam, peoples of Dagestan, customs, traditions

Adzhemian M., Petrova Yu. Features of Cultural and Religious Traditions of the Armenian People / annotation

Mariam I. Adzhemian – Student, Rostov State University of Economics, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Yulia A. Petrova – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Rostov State University of Economics, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The article reveals the concepts of "religiosity" and "Armenian religious identity" in modern Armenia, some examples of the Armenian national religion. In particular, the traditions of Armenian apostolic Christianity and its folk versions, expressed in religious holidays and rites, are considered. Armenians are one of the oldest peoples of the world, the documentary history of which dates back about three millennia and Armenia was the first country where Christianity was proclaimed as a state religion. For such a long time, the people have repeatedly experienced tragic periods of their history, and periods of unprecedented heyday, and creative work. The national features of the character of Armenians usually include hard work, determination, energy, resilience, entrepreneurship. They have a special addiction to teaching and crafts, respect for written culture, devotion to their language, home and family. This people is characterized by irascibility and self-love, combined with good-natured peacefulness, hospitality, love of music and subtle humor; they are easily appeased. At the same time, Armenians are characterized by developed individualism, unwillingness to submit to anyone, this allowed them to preserve their culture and religion, which have been vividly embodied in the customs and traditions of religious and secular character of this ethnic group and which are significant to this day.

Key words: religion, Armenian Apostolic Church, Christianity, identity, religious holidays

Ten Yu. The Use of Mythological and Religious Symbols in The Territorial Marketing of the Black Sea Countries / annotation

Yulia P. Ten – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Management department, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russian Federation.

The article develops a symbolic-value approach to the analysis of branding in territorial marketing. The purpose of the study is to analyze the construction of the Black Sea region brand based on the appeal to mythological and religious symbols of past cultural eras in the history of this territory. A semiotic approach is used to analyze the problem of territory branding. The author considers the brand as a complex symbolic structure that narrows the territory as an intangible asset. It has been revealed that the cultural heritage of the Black Sea region ancient civilizations, especially mythology and religion, is the main one in formation of a positive image of this territory. The idea is substantiated that ancient mythological and religious symbols are important elements in the construction of the Black Sea region collective identity. It is recommended to refer to ancient symbols in developing a strategy for promoting the Black Sea territory brand. If ancient symbols acquire new, more modern meanings for interpretation by consumers, the brand of the territory will eventually become more competitive.

Key words: territorial marketing, territory brand, Black Sea region territorial marketing, mythological and religious symbols

Don State Technical University
Tbilisi State University
Moldavian association of international law
DANUBIUS University
Varna Free University 'Chernorizets Hrabar'