ISSN 2414-1143

ARCHIVE

CONTENTS
2020. N 4

Modern problems of culture and religion of peoples Black Sea countries
(philosophical anthropology, philosophy of culture)

Ten Yu. Culture of The Peoples of The Black Sea Region Countries in The Context of The Global Culture Formation in The Era of Globalization / annotation

Yulia P. Ten – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russian Federation.

The relevance of the appeal to the study of the development of culture on a global scale is due to the fact that in the modern period no people or region or country can exist in isolation. In the face of the latest challenges of globalization (the pandemic, the environmental crisis, the threat of man-made disasters, etc.), all countries must join forces in solving world problems. The author proposes a structural-systematic approach to the analysis of the essence of the phenomenon of culture. Hence, the goal of the research is to analyze culture as a complex structured system. In the article, culture is considered by analogy with the "iceberg culture" model, consisting of different layers. The author`s attention is focused on the analysis of the process of forming the upper (world) layer of human culture. This layer of culture is a system of ideas, ideals, knowledge, norms and values that are accepted by most countries of the world. The adoption of this system of meanings of the world culture is an important step towards overcoming intercultural communication barriers. Thus, the author draws attention to the fact that although since ancient times the countries of the Black Sea region have been united by a common cultural history, political and trade and economic ties, nevertheless, barriers for mutual understanding have not been eliminated yet. Therefore, today it is very important that all the peoples realize the need to find ways and technologies to form a common language of the world culture.

Key words: culture, globalization, intercultural communication, barriers of intercultural communication, world culture, multi-level model of culture

Mustafaeva M., Hiyasova S., Musaeva E. Customs and Traditions of The Peoples of Dagestan As the Basis of The Dagestan Mentality / annotation

Maida G. Mustafaeva – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Professor, Dagestan State Pedagogical University, Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, Russian Federation.
Sarat G. Hiyasova – Ph.D. in Pedagogy, Associate Professor, Dagestan State Pedagogical University, Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, Russian Federation.
Elmira Sh. Musaeva – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Dagestan State Pedagogical University, Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, Russian Federation.

The features of the Dagestan mentality are studied, the characteristic of the traditional system of customary law embodied in adats and Sharia is given, the conclusion about their direct influence on the formation of the mentality of the Dagestan peoples is made. A number of customs and traditions of the peoples of Dagestan are analyzed, including such public institutions as hospitality, kunachestvo (friendship), twinning, atalychestvo (fosterage) and others, which embodied the identity, national psychology and mentality of the highlanders. The creative, humanistic beginning of the traditional national culture of Dagestan is justified and its key role in consolidating the peoples of Dagestan and strengthening good neighborhood relations with the peoples of the North Caucasus is emphasized. Analysis of the origins of traditional Dagestan culture allows us to better understand and accept the features of the modern Dagestan mentality, its specificity and uniqueness.

Key words: traditions, customs, adats, Sharia, Dagestan, mentality, namus

Makhrinova M., Berkovsky V., Litvinova E. Socio-Philosophical Analysis of Culture Development: Methodological Aspects of Folk Art Research / annotation

Marina V. Makhrinova – Ph.D. in Pedagogy, Associate Professor, North-Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol, Russian Federation.
Vyacheslav A. Berkovsky – Ph.D. in Sociology, Associate Professor, Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute, Stavropol, Russian Federation.
Ekaterina Yu. Litvinova – Ph.D. in Pedagogy, North-Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol, Russian Federation.

One of the most important topics related to the development of culture, its traditions and its role in modern life is folk art. Folk art as a part of culture is a rich complex of many phenomena, which together make up the essence of the concept, folk tradition, phenomena that are especially noticeable in the cultural heritage of the people in their entertainment. This applies to folk art, both traditional and modern. The latter, for the most part, rooted deep in history, still bears a living trace of the past and thus is a form of a revived tradition. The connection with the past and continuity are manifested in folk art much more strongly than in any other area of folk culture. This feature of folk art in the period of progressive universalization of culture determines its role in the development of modern national culture. The stability of the phenomenon of artistic folk art, as well as its vitality both in material embodiment and in various socio-economic and cultural-ideological manifestations, is of fundamental importance.

Key words: cultural values, cultural heritage, public consciousness, national culture, religious cult, aesthetic needs, state

Wiegel N. Virtual Volunteers: New Strategies of Volunteering During the Pandemic of Covid-19 / annotation

Narine L. Wiegel – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Professor, Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The article is devoted to the analysis of volunteer activity during the crisis of a social life, that is the pandemic of coronavirus infection. The situation of mass stress and fear during the period of isolation has launched mechanisms of mental instability, increased emotionality, as well as the breakdown of social connections, which affects the mental and physical health of a person extremely negatively. And only volunteers tried and try to compensate for the lost sociality through sociality, which is relevant in the crisis situation of human existence. As the virus continues to spread rapidly around the world, including in Russia, telemedicine is an important risk reduction strategy for healthcare professionals, patients and their families. The situation with the spread of coronavirus infection implies a reduction in physical contacts, which contributes to the emergence of a new volunteering strategy, that is a virtual volunteering, which can relieve psycho-emotional concern, as well as take on the mission of educating the population. Virtual volunteering can serve as an intermediary between the interpersonal physical contact of volunteers and those who need the help of volunteers. It should be noted that the creation of infrastructure for virtual volunteering during this pandemic may be applicable in the future. Both during and after the pandemic, virtual volunteering can protect immunocompromised patients and volunteers, isolated or otherwise at high risk, while still allowing them either to receive or to provide psychological and information and awareness-raising services.

Key words: volunteer, volunteering, social practice, social demand, expansion of social experience, self-knowledge and self-development

Evstropov V., Zelenkova G. Introduction to Vitahumanology / annotation

Vladimir M. Evstropov – M.D., Associate Professor, Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Galina A. Zelenkova – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Agricultural sciences, Professor, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

If we talk about sciences in one way or another related to the human research, then it is necessary to take into account that in the subject of research all sciences are divided into natural, humanitarian and technical. Despite some specifics, there is a specialization and an integration in all these sciences. Nevertheless, the problematic nature of the orientation of modern science initiated the development of interdisciplinary and complex researches. Based on the fact that the fundamental feature of the human from all living beings is his differences in interaction with the environment, it becomes relevant, from our point of view, to emphasize the study of the human in an interdisciplinary aspect from the point of view of his productive, creative life activity, which is becoming more and more extensive and at the same time unsafe. Therefore, it is important to reflect characteristics reflecting physiological and psychophysiological features of a person`s activity when systematically assessing his natural-humanitarian characteristics. In this regard, it seems advisable for us to describe the essence of the doctrine of vitahumanology briefly (vita – life (Latin), human – human (English), logos – thought (Greek)). Due to the fact that an essential component of human life is his ac-tivity, vitahumanology can be considered as one of the fields of biosociology, studying physiological, psychophysiological and noxological aspects of human activity in the environment. Such fields of knowledge as ecology, hygiene, labor psychology, labor physiology, ergonomics, etc. can play a connecting role between scientific and humanitarian. Vitahumanology can be considered as one of the fields of biosociology, aimed at the systemically oriented and integrative study of biological-social, medico-social, medico-preventive, noxological and psychological foundations of human life and activity in the environment and in the production environment.

Key words: human ecology, environment, human, integrity, interdisciplinary, natural, humanitarian and technical sciences

Khuako F. Ethnopedagogy As A Method in The Crisis of The New Century (Taking into Account the Adygeyan Experience) / annotation

Fatimet N. Khuako – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philology, Professor, Maykop State Technological University, Maykop, Republic of Adygea, Russian Federation.

The relevance of the presented article is due to the processes of globalization taking place in the world space, including the post-industrial technocracy, which is evident today. The crisis of individual consciousness that arises in these conditions, primarily affecting young people, requires the derivation of new didactic formulas. In this case methods include observation, analytical comparison, synthetic structuring. Folk pedagogy in the North Caucasus (in particular, among the Circassians), presented in the article as a possible methodological solution, is capable of helping in the formation and instilling of the required system of values in a teenager, bypassing the complications existing in the Russian Federation: 1) bilingualism and 2) society. The main goal was to study the theoretical and methodological foundations of national (in particular, Adyghe) ethnopedagogy as a rich didactic resource, the study of which contributes to the achievement of tactical educational tasks. As it was revealed in the course of the study, the inclusion of ethno-pedagogical means in the educational scheme is hampered today due to insufficient applied knowledge. The inculcation of individual dominants at all times is clearly connected by the national beliefs of native speakers, which is directly reproduced in ethnic techniques. Thus, in general: 1) in pedagogical practice, if possible, one should rely on the ethnopedagogical information of previous generations, but 2) at the same time, it is necessary to instill in the student an interest in scientific knowledge and the process.

Key words: global crisis, Adyghe culture, ethnopedagogy, methodological attitudes, ethnocon-sciousness, totalitarianism

Petrova Yu. Typology of Functional Styles of The Bulgarian Language: Cultural, Historical and Linguistic Aspects / annotation

Yulia A. Petrova – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Rostov State University of Economics, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The scientific and technological revolution of the past and present centuries causes global changes, contributes to the interconnection of continents, countries and people. Citizens overcome national, social and linguistic differences. Studying languages, we get to know the world and create our own linguistic worlds, and already through them we learn a lot about the linguistic picture of the world as a whole. The Bulgarian language is considered as one of the languages of the large family of Slavic languages, which are part of the Indo-European languages. Like any other language, Bulgarian is a historical phenomenon. It emerged as an independent language with its own typical and distinctive features at a certain stage in the development of dialects of Slavic tribes. During its centuries-old existence, the Bulgarian language has undergone significant development. The origin of the Bulgarian language can be found in the distant past, and its gradual development continued over the centuries. In its development, there were no sharp leaps and transitions from one quality to another, which is considered in our study.

Key words: Bulgarian language, dialect, lexical and grammatical units, typology of styles, isogloss

(religious studies)

Buttayeva A., Aslanov A., Suleimanova Z. Intercultural Relations as A Dialogue of Confessions in Social Space and Cyberspace of Multicultural Russia / annotation

Asiyat M. Buttayeva – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Professor, Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, Russian Federation.
Aslan M. Aslanov – Ph.D. student, Dagestan State University, Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, Russian Federation.
Zumrud S. Suleimanova – Ph.D. student, Dagestan State University, Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, Russian Federation.

The dialogue of confessions in the context of intercultural relations certainly plays a special role in the history of the world civilization in general, and in particular of countries with a multicultural and multi-confessional component. Therefore, now, in the period of globalization, one of the main tasks of modern Russian society is to preserve multicultural and multi-confessional historical heritage of all the peoples of Russia, to prevent possible conflicts, and to create an atmosphere of respect for cultural values in society. The study addresses the problem of a dialogue of cultures in the traditional “dimension” and in “cyberspace”. It is noted that the idea of a dialogue as a form of intercultural interaction makes it possible to consider the problems of inter-confessional relations in the system of culture. The attempt is made to determine the name of the digital environment – “cyberworld”, and to introduce it into scientific circulation as a philosophical category for denoting the digital environment. An approach to understanding intercultural relations as a dialogue of confessions is proposed, which allows us to consider religion as a unifying factor of cultures. Digitalization promotes a dialogue both inter-confessional and intercultural, creating an additional environment – a cyber world with an intensive speed of information flow; to avoid assimilation of religions in the flow of information in cyberspace, cross-cultural and religious literacy is necessary. Religion is a factor that unites cultures and which consolidates in the inter-confessional dialogue, both in social and in cyberspace.

Key words: dialogue, culture, religion, cyberspace, confessions

Grekov I. The Concepts of Esotericism and Exoterism in the Context of Religious and Philosophical Doctrines of the 20th Century / annotation

Igor M. Grekov – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Ryazan State University, Ryazan, Russian Federation.

This article discusses the concepts of esotericism and exoterism in the context of religious and philosophical teachings of the XX century. The author focuses on theosophy of E. Blavatsky, A. Besant, the “living ethics” of the Roerichs, the anthroposophy of R. Steiner, the traditionalism of R. Genon, the doctrine of the “Rose of the World” by D. Andreev, and the Esoteric Christianity of B. Muravyov. Analyzing the works of N. Berdyaev, the author comes to the conclusion that for the thinker the mystical is the esoteric (inner) experience, a state that is practically not transmitted through concepts in contrast to theology, which is exoteric. The dominance of the new religiosity of N. A. Berdyaev connects with the formation of a synthetic religious teaching, the basis of which will be conscious mysticism, mystical realism, the opposite of common sense and justified by reason.

Key words: esotericism, mesotericism, exotericism, theosophy, esoteric philosophy, mysticism, tradition, gnosis

Yandarov M. Analysis of Religious and Philosophical Views of Chechen Sufi Kunta-Haji Kishiev Based on Local Arabographic Sources / annotation

Muhammad A. Yandarov – Graduate student, Russian Islamic Institute, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation.

The religious activities of the Chechen Sufi Kunta-Haji Kishiev are revealed. Kunta-Haji expressed his views orally, he sermonized for his followers, demonstrating the practice of performing the ritual associated with the Qadiriyah Tariqa. In Chechnya he became the founder of the Qadiriyah Tariqa. In writing, the teachings of Kunta-Haji are recorded in several arabographic texts which were published in the tsarist period at the beginning of the 20th century in private printing houses in Dagestan. These works were rare, that limited the possibilities of their wide analysis and involvement in scientific circulation. Only in the late 90s of the 20th century, they began to be published in Arabic and Chechen, that allowed to use them wider, assessing the substantive aspects of the teachings of Kunta-Haji. Ideas calling for peace, condemnation of war, violence, cleansing of sins, spiritual perfection, and the search for a path leading to God are valuable in his teaching.

Key words: Sufi, Chechens, Tariqa, Qadiriyah, Kunta-Haji, Vird (a set of prayers), arabographic texts

Kratova N. Some Aspects of The Development of The Muslim Ummah In Karachay-Cherkessia in 2011-2020 / annotation

Natalya V. Kratova – Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Karachay-Cherkess Institute of Humanitarian Research under the Government of the KCR, Cherkessk, Karachay-Cherkess Republic, Russian Federation.

Some directions of the development of the Muslim ummah of Karachay-Cherkessia in the second decade of the 21st century after the Report-and-election Congress of Mus-lims of Karachay-Cherkessia and Stavropol are shown. An overview of the state of affairs in the Spiritual Administration of Karachay-Cherkessia and Stavropol Territory at the end of the 2000s is given. Along with the obvious achievements that allowed the muftiate to take a worthy place in the social structure of the republic, by this time a serious set of contradictions had accumulated, requiring a reform of the muftiate`s management system. First of all, the task was to make up for the human losses: prominent spiritual leaders who had great authority in the local ummah and were killed in several years. In addition, it was necessary to involve representatives of young educated clergy in the work of the muftiate. An important task was to prevent a split in spiritual unity in the conditions of the exit from the Muftiate of the Stavropol Ummah, which formed its own muftiate. The system of administration created after the Report-and-Election Congress of Muslims of Karachay-Cherkessia and Stavropol Territory is also examined in detail. The criterion of its effectiveness was the work on countering the ideology of extremism and terrorism. The presence of educated clergy in the system of governance by the muftiat made it possible to adequately resist the agitation of adherents of organizations banned in Russia and prevent the formation of an aura of “champions of truth” and “defenders of justice” among members of extremist cells. The negative side of the created scheme of governance of the muftiate was stagnation: for ten years, the governing bodies were practically not updated. An attempt to create a personal site ended in failure. During the same period, illegal armed formations of supporters of religious extremist ideology continued to appear in the republic, the elimination of which required significant efforts of law enforcement agencies.

Key words: Islam, Spiritual Directorate of Muslims of Karachay-Cherkessia and Stavropol Territory, Spiritual Directorate of Muslims of the Karachay-Cherkess Republic, Karachay-Cherkess Republic, countering terrorism

(theory and history of culture)

Sklyarova E., Kamalova O. Crimean War: Medical and Social Characteristics and Consequences / annotation

Elena K. Sklyarova – Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Olga N. Kamalova – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The medical and social features and consequences of the Crimean War (1853 – 1856) are considered. Based on the historical and genetic research method, the author analyzes the process of creating an army health system, the problem of corruption in the context of the history of Great Britain, the Ottoman and Russian empires in the middle of the 19th century. Public health, nursing training, and army health care became a new field of medicine. The consequence of the Crimean War was the formation of women`s medical activities, the organization of state care for the wounded, the elimination of corruption in the army, which were carried out in the Crimean hospitals (in Sevastopol, Bakhchisarai, Karasu-Bazar, Kozlov, Simferopol), in Turkish hospitals (in Scutari, Renkio), Great Britain (London, Chatham), as well as in the USA and Japan. For the first time, the army`s health care received an official status and recognition, thanks to the joint activities of reformers from different countries of the world N.I. Pirogov, L.A. Beckers, E. Chadwick, N. Arnott S. Smith, W. Farr, Lord Herbert, F. Nightingale, L. Richards, E. Parks. The transformation of public health took place on the territory of military hospitals located in the Ottoman Empire and Crimea. It is shown that, having become an integral element of the international politics of the countries of the world, during the Crimean War, public health and nursing were separated from clinical medicine, becoming a new area of state medical care.

Key words: Crimean War, Russian Empire, Ottoman Empire, Great Britain, public health, corruption, hospital, museum, S. Gerbert, E. Chadwick, N. Pirogov, F. Nightingale

Kunupova A., Petrova Yu. Features of Traditions and Customs of The Circassian People Living in The Black Sea Regions / annotation

Angelika D. Kunupova – Student, Rostov State University of Economics, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Yulia A. Petrova – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Rostov State University of Economics, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

There are peoples whose history reads like an exciting novel - there are so many dizzying twists and turns, vivid episodes and amazing events, unusual and interesting traditions. One of these peoples is the Circassians, the indigenous population mainly of the Northern Black Sea region: Karachay-Cherkessia, Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, as well as the Southern Black Sea region: Krasnodar and Stavropol regions. The lands where the Circassians lived were some of the best. These places are still incredibly good. They are resort areas. This people has a rather distinctive culture. Despite the tragic pages of history, this nation has fully retained its vividly expressed individuality. Circassian women have always embodied the ideals of beauty, and men have been the standard of masculinity. The public life of the Circassians is usually filled with rituals. Life is a whole chain of ceremonies for the Circassian people. This article examines the history, linguistic habits, peculiarities of traditions, as well as the customs and norms of the Circassians, which are enshrined in the unwritten code of Adyghe Khabze. Such vital topics of the Circassian people as courtship, marriage, death and burial are reflected in this study.

Key words: Circassians, traditions, customs, culture, language, norms

Dzhioeva I., Gurieva L., Techov A. Features of The Development of Organizational-Industrial Structures of The Agrarian Sector in South Ossetia (1953 - 1970) / annotation

Irina K. Dzhioeva – Ph.D. in Economics, Associate Professor, South Ossetian State University, Tskhinval, Republic of South Ossetia.
Lira K. Gurieva – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Economics, Professor, North Ossetian State University, Vladikavkaz, Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Russian Federation.
Albert V. Techov – Ph.D. in Economics, Associate Professor, South Ossetian State University, Tskhinval, Republic of South Ossetia.

The article examines the problems of agriculture in the Soviet period and their causes; the consequences of the most popular reforms in agriculture carried out in the studied period are reasonably revealed, trends and results of the transformation of the organizational and production structures of the agricultural sector, as well as the economic and social consequences of the formation of vertical structures of the agro-industrial complex are revealed. The scientific work carried out a historical and economic study of the development of agriculture in South Ossetia with consideration of the features of conceptual approaches to the analysis of the economic transformation of agriculture in the conditions of the development of the socialist mode of production. The prerequisites and incentives for economic development, indicators of economic growth, as well as existing problems in the social and economic development of society in the period under study have been clarified.

Key words: South Ossetia; agricultural reform; collective farm-state farm system; private household plots

Caberty N., Dzhioev A. Urban and Rural Population Birth-Rate Research in The North Caucasian Federal District / annotation

Nodar G. Caberty – Ph.D. in Economics, Associate Professor, Senior Research Fellow, Laboratory of Applied Sociology and Conflictology, Vladikavkaz Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladikavkaz, Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Russian Federation.
Alexandr V. Dzhioev – Junior Research Fellow, Laboratory of Applied Sociology and Conflictology, Vladikavkaz Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladikavkaz, Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, Russian Federation.

The article is devoted to the study of regional characteristics of the birth-rate among urban and rural population in the regions of the North Caucasian Federal District. In the works of Russian and foreign authors, the level of urbanization is recognized as an important factor influencing the reproductive behavior of the population. The purpose of the study is to determine characteristics of the level and change in the intensity of the birth-rate in the regions of the North Caucasian Federal District in the context of city-village. The analysis covered a fairly long period (1990 – 2018). It is revealed that despite the fact that the demographic crisis in the North Caucasus is relatively mild, it negatively affected all processes of natural movement, including the birth-rate. A comparative analysis of overall and partial birth-rate coefficients in urban and rural areas of all regions of the North Caucasian Federal District was carried out and it is found that over the entire analyzed period there was a convergence of the birth-rate indicators of cities and villages. The difference reduced mainly due to the decrease of the rural birth-rate. Regional features of such convergence in individual subjects of the North Caucasian Federal District are revealed. Based on the results of a survey of the population on the desired and expected number of children in the family, in micro-census of 2015, it is concluded that the regional and rural-urban differentiation of the intensity of the birth-rate in the North Caucasus will continue in the future.

Key words: birth-rate, birth-rate indicators, regions of the North Caucasian Federal District, urban population, rural population, age coefficients

Dashkova E., Ivushkina E. Tourist Resources of The Sharoysky District of The Chechen Republic: Characteristics and Perspectives of Creating and Using of An Open-Air Museum / annotation

Elena V. Dashkova – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Chechen State University, Grozny, Chechen Republic, Russian Federation.
Elena B. Ivushkina – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Professor, Chechen State University, Grozny, Chechen Republic, Russian Federation.

Recent events in Russia have shown that it is necessary to develop country`s domestic tourism and invest in it. Our country is quite competitive. One of the most perspective directions of development is the organization of tours with active types of recreation by tourist companies, the increase of their diversity, and their geographical expansion. The Chechen Republic is actively developing thanks to the support of the State. Recently, Chechnya has been an excellent place to get acquainted with culture, customs and sights of this region, since the Republic has diverse and unique resources for the active types of tourism. Tourist resources of the Chechen Republic, in particular, the Sharoysky District, are being investigated. The objects of cultural heritage of the region, history, possible tourist routes are considered. It was found that the Sharoysky district of the Chechen Republic may have a great future in the field of tourism development, since this is one of the mountainous regions of the Republic. It is necessary to develop active types of recreation combined with enlightening travel in this district, because the Sharoysky tower complex is a unique historical and cultural object that needs to be made an object of tourist interest.

Key words: tourist resources, Chechen Republic

Don State Technical University
Tbilisi State University
Moldavian association of international law
DANUBIUS University
Varna Free University 'Chernorizets Hrabar'