ISSN 2414-1143


2020 N 1 – Goncharov V., Kolosova O., Volkov A. Ethno-Cultural Aspect of Personality Development in the Educational System

Vadim N. Goncharov – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Associate Professor, North Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol, Russian Federation.
Olga Yu. Kolosova – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Stavropol Branch Krasnodar University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Stavropol, Russian Federation.
Aleksandr A. Volkov – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Psychology, Professor, North Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol, Russian Federation.

In a multi-ethnic state, the general principles for solving ethnocultural problems are often given by a political formula expressing the general national-state idea, including the principles of ethnic integration. An educational institution is one of the sociocultural mechanisms for implementing a specific national-state idea. Cultural differences, especially in customs and religion, were perceived more or less tolerantly in many parts of the world. However, in such an important area of culture as education, tolerance is manifested much less frequently. The most receptive cultures responded to the globalization of the economy and industry of Western culture with measures aimed at finding and maintaining ethnocultural identities. The self-assertion of ethnoculture becomes a force that makes it possible to withstand the crisis of identity generated by globalization. As a result of ethnocultural self-affirmation, new modern forms of expression of identity arise. The processes taking place on a global scale are characterized by the desire of peoples to maintain their identity, emphasize the uniqueness of their culture and psychological makeup, and millions of people to realize their belonging to a particular ethnic group. A person feels the non-stability of the world. He seeks protection, support and self-confidence in the enduring, eternal, stable values of his ancestors, seeks to preserve his identity, unique culture. Interest in their roots in individuals and entire nations is manifested in a variety of forms: from the revival of ancient customs and rituals, folklorization of culture, to the desire to create and restore their national statehood. Therefore, it is intergenerational stable communities, primarily ethnic groups, which acquire great significance in the life of the modern man. Ethnocultural revival is considered as one of the main features of human development in the 21st century. The main channel for the reproduction of culture in society is education, one of the broadest spheres of human activity, a specific structural element of ethnic culture that fulfills the function of continuity of generations.

Key words: personality, public consciousness, education, education, pedagogical system, civilization, ethnic culture, ethnic community, cultural self-identification

2020 N 1 – Vakhaeva H. Correlation of Norms of Law with Culture and Traditions of the Chechen People

Hedi Sh. Vakhaeva – Ph.D. student, Chechen State University, Grozny, Chechen Republic, Russian Federation.

This article examines the problems of the culture of behavior and etiquette of the Chechen modern generation, as well as the culture within family relations. The subject of traditions and features in communication between generations, as well as ethical standards of behavior within society are considered. Much attention is paid to family values, which play an important role in the transmission of moral and ethical rules. The family and everyday ideas of the Chechens are analyzed, which are interconnected with the manner of communication and behavior in the economic field of life. The emphasis is placed on the fact that the foundation in the formation of an individual personality is considered moral and ethical values in the concept of «nokhchalla».

Key words: traditions, culture, customs, etiquette, family values, Adat, the Chechen Republic

2020 N 1 – Vergun T., Grishin D. Impact of Ethnic Tourism on Inter-Ethnic Relations

Tatiana V. Vergun – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, North Caucasus Social Institute, Stavropol, Russian Federation.
Denis V. Grishin – Ph.D. in Economics, Associate Professor, North Caucasus Social Institute, Stavropol, Russian Federation.

Issues of impact of ethnic tourism on formation of inter-ethnic relations are considered. It is noted that the growth of ethnic identity can lead to the emergence on the market of tourist products, new proposals that will take into account the growing interest of people in under-standing the culture and life both of their ancestors and of representatives of other ethnic groups. The development of issues which are related to the ontogenesis of ethnotourism has arisen relatively recently, researches of this nature are still new. The conceptual questions are also in the formation stage. Most researchers of this topic highlight the main purpose of ethnic tourism as familiarity with the peculiarities of traditional material and spiritual culture, the unique way of life of the ethnic group, traditions and customs. Such a definition of "ethnic tourism" can be considered the most generic and universal. Ethnic tourism as a phenomenon is a significant element in the understanding of inter-ethnic relations and inter-ethnic culture. In practice, this is realized through the promotion of ethnic tourism and awareness of its importance for the tourist industry as a whole. From a theoretical perspective, ethnic tourism is a productive strategy for raising awareness of the concepts of "ethnic identity" and "ethnic relations". As a conclusion, it is noted that the emergence and strengthening of positive trends in the development of ethnotourism are particularly relevant, as they contribute to the preservation of the cultural and historical heritage of an ethnic group, they support the identity of ethnic groups, and they are a factor of the sustainable development of their traditional territories. Considering ethnic identity and tourism, one can say with confidence about interinfluence of these two elements. Tourism, one of the largest industries in the world, has an impact on the formation of the ethnic identity of the person.

Key words: ethnic tourism, cultural tourism, inter-ethnic relations, ethnic identity, traditional culture

2020 N 1 – Ivushkina E., Dashkova E. Prospects for Organization of Rural Tourism in the Chechen Republic

Elena B. Ivushkina – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Professor, Chechen State University, Grozny, Chechen Republic, Russian Federation.
Elena V. Dashkova – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Chechen State University, Grozny, Chechen Republic, Russian Federation.

In Russia, there are prospects for the development of various types of tourism. Historically, Russia has long been an agricultural country and large territories belong to rural settlements. Therefore, one of the priority types of tourism in our country is rural tourism. The interconnection of structural elements in the development of rural tourism is presented. In the Chechen Republic, there is some experience in the development of tourism in small towns since the Soviet era. For example, a tourist base in the village of Benoy in the Vedensky district functioned successfully. The base was of All-Union significance and up to three thousand tourists passed through it in a season. The modern socio-economic development of the Chechen Republic is aimed at the revival of the tourism industry. In the Chechen Republic, 65.26% of the population are rural residents. They are well aware of the way of rural life, traditions, customs, and features of rural life. The basis of rural tourism is the stay of tourists in the countryside, where the rural family takes care of the accommodation, food and service of the tourists. Organization of rural tourism may become a priority for the Chechen Republic

Key words: culture, Black Sea region, Turkey, Turkic languages, West European borrowings

2020 N 1 – Kuleshin M., Nemashkalov P., Plyako O. Historical Consciousness in the Process of Forming Ethnic Stereotypes of Material Culture

Maxim G. Kuleshin – Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute, Stavropol, Russian Federation.
Pavel G. Nemashkalov – Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute, Stavropol, Russian Federation.
Olesya O. Plyako – teacher of history and social science, Municipal budgetary educational institution Secondary school No. 30, Mikhailovsk, Stavropol Territory, Russian Federation.

The concept of stereotype, or ethnic stereotype, in ethnic science is associated with the formula «ethnic stereotype of behavior». Numerous works by ethnographers, culturologists and other scientists confirm the special relevance of the study of this phenomenon. There is an urgent need for a holistic consideration of ethnic stereotypes of behavior, not just in the usual way to ethnographers (as expressed in a particular form of elements of traditional everyday culture), but also in terms of their functioning in the sphere of everyday consciousness. However, stereotyping in ethnic tradition is a concept that covers a wider range of issues that differ from exclusively behavioral forms. Stereotyping is a phenomenon that is characteristic of many manifestations of the functioning of elements of traditional everyday culture. Tradition is understood as experience accumulating in the form of a system of stereotypes of human activity (activity), stereotypes of ideas about them and ways of their designation or symbolization. From this point of view, behavioral acts can be considered as particular manifestations of symbolic stereotypes. Relevant here are the aspects of human activity related to the production of material components of culture, ideas about them, or their perception as ethnic carriers. The main thesis - communicativeness is one of the most important functions of tradition, involves a number of questions: which of the components of the material culture of peoples most persistently retain their specificity, being ethnic indicators of historical consciousness; how they function in time, what are the factors that stabilize, consolidate and transmit precisely these, and not other components of culture, what is the intensity of their historical existence (discreteness, continuity). In that case the problem of territorial and spatial relations appears, that is, the correlation of sub-ethnic, ethnic and superethnic in the cultural tradition, in this case, in its material components and their functioning.

Key words: ethnos, sub-ethnos, ethnic marker, ethnic indicator, ethnic culture, ethnocultural information, ethnic stereotype, sociocultural communication

2020 N 1 – Hiyasova S., Mustafaeva M., Musaeva E. Forms of Conflict Regulation in Pre-Revolutionary Dagestan

Sarat G. Hiyasova – Ph.D. in Pedagogy, Associate Professor, Dagestan State Pedagogical University, Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, Russian Federation.
Maida G. Mustafaeva – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Professor, Dagestan State Pedagogical University, Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, Russian Federation.
Elmira Sh. Musaeva – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Dagestan State Pedagogi-cal University, Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, Russian Federation.

Forms of conflict regulation in pre-revolutionary Dagestan are analyzed: Maslaat (an arbitrational or mediatory method of conflict regulation, which has become common in the North Caucasus) and Adat (a custom, relic norms of pre-Islamic legal complexes, a set of rules of a customary law among Dagestan peoples). Various models of their implementation in the traditional pre-revolutionary culture of the peoples of Dagestan are revealed. Features of Dagestan Adats of different societies and settlements are noted. These features are manifested in the fact that, for all the unity and external similarity of codes and provisions, no paragraph repeats the other literally, that is, all of them are of a private nature. The authors analyze the origins of Adats in Dagestan and note that each community (jamaat) had its own code on the basis of common, i.e. single Adat right in Dagestan is divided into many codified codes. Each code fell into Adats of specific communities. The reasons of sustainability of these forms in society are investigated, despite numerous attempts to introduce Shariat norms in pre-revolutionary Dagestan, and the main factors by which Shariat has not displaced Adats are being identified. According to the authors among such factors there is, for example, the fact that Adats got into the life of the Highlanders firmly, and became the basis of their lifestyle and morality. They were more understand-able for the Highlanders, as they provided for less stringent punishments than Shariat. Adats were means of replenishment of the budget of leadership elite: bek (the category of privileged population), uzden (the feudal class in the Caucasus), etc. In their elimination the last saw a real threat of their financial wellbeing. The significance and relevance of Adats and Maslaat in modern society are justified and their role in modern culture of Dagestan peoples is determined.

Key words: Maslaat, Adat, culture, Dagestan, peoples, right, crimes, punishments, conflicts

2020 N 1 – Kratova N. Monuments of History and Culture in the System of State-Confessional Interaction in the Post-Soviet Period (on the Example of Karachay-Cherkessia)

Natalya V. Kratova – Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Karachay-Cherkess Institute of Humanitarian Research under the Government of the KCR, Cherkessk, Karachay-Cherkess Republic, Russian Federation.

This article is devoted to an important, very complex and controversial issue in the sphere of state-confessional relations - the return to religious organizations of once nationalized religious buildings and other religious property. In the Russian Federation, unlike some other post-Soviet countries, they categorically re-fused to restitution of nationalized property, however, they made some concessions regarding religious organizations, recognizing the possibility of returning buildings and religious utensils. Several government decrees were issued that regulated this process, and a Commission on Religious Associations under the Government of the Russian Federation was created specifically to coordinate these issues. In 2010, Federal Law No. 327-FZ “On the transfer of religious property owned by state or municipal property” to religious organizations was issued, in accordance with which, in the case of official treatment by a religious organization, any religious property is subject to transfer, regardless of the form of ownership. However, to put into practice the right granted by the state turned out to be quite difficult. A large number of problems arose, which were difficult to solve. As a rule, religious buildings often housed museums or other institutions that needed to be translated somewhere. The question arose about the safety of the property being transferred, which could inevitably suffer from regular use. Under the conditions of Karachay-Cherkessia, the church’s attempts to return the temple complexes of the 10th century met with stiff resistance not only from the museum management, but also from the public, who considered the monuments, primarily, as the cultural value of their people. This article shows how this problem was solved in the KCR in the post-Soviet period. The article is based on documents from the archive of the Authorized Head of the KCR on relations with religious organizations, copies of which were kindly transferred to the author.

Key words: state-confessional relations, state-confessional politics, Karachay-Cherkess Republic, recent history of Russia, restitution of church property, Russian Orthodox Church

2020 N 1 – Berkovskiy V., Leonova N., Tronina L. Historical Forms of Ethnic Identity in the Context of the Development of Contemporary Art

Vyacheslav A. Berkovskiy – Ph.D. in Sociology, Associate Professor, Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute, Stavropol, Russian Federation.
Natalya A. Leonova – Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute, Stavropol, Russian Federation.
Larisa A. Tronina – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute, Stavropol, Russian Federation.

The field of ethnography is extremely broad, nevertheless, conditionally it is possible to distinguish two classes of objects of this science depending on its attitude to its material. The first class of such objects includes spontaneous ethnic processes or processes which have taken place in the past, and the second class includes ethnic processes which by their nature, involve a certain social regulation. In the first case, the task of ethnography consists in scientific study of facts and maximum complete reconstruction of the past ethnic cultures, in the second its task is not exhausted by research and theoretical reconstruction of the activities of ethnic groups, although, of course, the creation of theories is the first task for any science. In society, ethnography is increasingly faced with the task of exercising, within the limits of its competence, a socio-technological, regulatory function. Increasing the efficiency of carrying out socio-technological or already socio-pedagogical tasks by ethnography significantly actualizes the problem of further clarification and enrichment of its framework of categories and concepts, of mobilization for this purpose of theoretical and cognitive means of other disciplines (social psychology, literature, linguistics).

Key words: personality, spiritual life, cultural fund of the people, ethnic identity, culture of ethnic groups, cultural values, sociocultural memory, ethnic history

2020 N 1 – Petrova Yu., Kuleshova K. Cultural and Historical Evolution of the Turkish Language under the Influence and Borrowing of European Languages

Yulia A. Petrova – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Rostov State University of Economics, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Ksenia A. Kuleshova – student, Rostov State University of Economics, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The issue that is relevant for Turkish linguistics i.e. borrowing words from various European languages is considered, Turkish is a language belonging to the Turkic group of languages. For a long time, the Turkish alphabet consisted of letters in Arabic letters, until they were replaced by Latin ones. Currently, the national Turkish language is a synthesis of the Turkish folk language, Old Turkic language and Asian Turkic languages. The Turkish language also contains many borrowings that come from the vocabulary of other countries. It is noted that a large number of borrowings in it are from the French language, which penetrated into the vocabulary of the Turks through the inclusion of French literature in the educational program of schools. Since that time, an important criterion for human education was the ability to speak a foreign language. The growing importance of Turkey in the field of trade and shipping has led to the emergence of many marine terms borrowed from the Italian language. The Lausanne Treaty, on the basis of which there was an exchange of settlements between Turkey and Greece, is the reason for the Greek borrowings of feudal terminology and household vocabulary existing in the Turkish vocabulary. It is emphasized that the source of English borrowing is scientific and technological progress, the terminological explosion of which forced to adopt vocabulary from the English language, since the number of new names was so great that the creation of neologisms was not relevant. Currently, due to the global spread of media and the Internet, the number of borrowings in the Turkish language has increased unusually. Using linguistic and cultural procedures and taking into account the peculiarities of cultural and historical evolution, the Turkish language reveals the national identities of a nation by means of language, preserving and transmitting the value connotations of the cultural code.

Key words: culture, Black Sea region, Turkey, Turkic languages, West European borrowings

2020 N 1 – Baskaeva Zh., Tatrova F. Historical Milestones in the Development of Preschool Education in the Russian Federation

Zhanna Kh. Baskaeva – Ph.D. in Pedagogy, Associate Professor, North Ossetian State University after K.L. Khetagurov, Vladikavkaz, Russian Federation.
Fatima Ch. Tatrova – student, North Ossetian State University after K.L. Khetagurov, Vladikavkaz, Russian Federation.

In the course of evolutionary historical development in Russia, the national education system has been built and it is developing, including preschool, school, multi-level professional and additional education. Preschool education in the modern Russian Federation is understood as education, training and development, as well as supervision, care and rehabilitation of children of preschool age from 2 months to 7 years. According to the analytical report of the international audit and consulting company FinExpertiza, in 2019 78.9% of Russian babies (4.1 million children) under the age of 3 years did not attend a day nursery. At the same time, the largest share of babies under the age of 3 years who do not attend nurseries is recorded, according to the study, in the Republic of Ingushetia. Here, 96.59% of toddlers stay with their mothers, and only 800 out of 23,492 children of the republic under the age of 3 visit the nursery. This figure is slightly lower in the Republic of Dagestan. Here 94.22%, or 139,205 babies stayed at home, and 8 540 babies go to the nursery. In third place is the Republic of Crimea, in which 91.13% of toddlers are with their parents at home, and only 8.87%, or 5,665 kindergarten children attend. Given the fact that in Russia now more than a third of young families with a child are not provided with preschool institutions, and in the south of Russia these statistics are even higher, preparing parents for the basics of family preschool education is becoming one of the most important tasks of youth family policy. It is obvious that the system of preschool education, like the entire system of relations in the field of education and upbringing of the younger generation, is influenced by powerful civilizational and technological trends, which often destroy historical features and national traditions. In this regard, the study of the characteristics of the national education system in its historical evolution is of particular relevance and significance.

Key words: Friedrich Froebel"s philosophy, the Soviet system of preschool education, the Federal state educational standard for preschool education, Development of education in 2013-2020

2020 N 1 – Zritneva E., Klushina N., Lobeiko Yu. Formation of Ethno-Education in the Context of the Modern Ethnocultural Space

Elena I. Zritneva – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Pedagogy, Professor, North-Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol, Russian Federation.
Nadezhda P. Klushina – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Pedagogy, Professor, North-Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol, Russian Federation.
Yuri A. Lobeiko – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Pedagogy, Professor, North-Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol, Russian Federation.

The revival of the cultural potential of each people and its disclosure through the education system, the inclusion of social and pedagogical processes into the content of the education of ethnic culture are the most important tasks of modern society. The global challenge of civilizational development is the creation of a single multicultural and educational space based on a multilateral dialogue of cultures that promotes the mental compatibility of people in the context of their complementarity and mutual enrichment. Based on the ethnocul-turological approach, the essential characteristics and basic structural components of the ethnocultural education system are determined, and personal, ethnopedagogic, linguistic, bilinguistic and moral aspects of the education system are revealed. From the point of view of procedural and efficient approach the essence of ethnocultural education system is interpreted as a process and a result of socio-historical development of ethnos, its main trends and features, and the readiness for ethnic self-identification is interpreted as a core quality in the structure of ethnic culture. It is alleged that the study of the ethnocultural environment in the system of formation and the pedagogical foundations of its formation should contribute to the realization of the cultural core of the content of education on the basis of universal human and regional values.

Key words: personality, culture, socialization, education, ethnocultural environment, ethnocutural education system, personality-oriented education, ethnocultural principles of morality

2020 N 2 – Makhrinova M., Makeenko I., Kashirina O. Formation of Ethnic Values of Personality in the Context of Ethnic Education

Marina V. Makhrinova – Ph.D. in Pedagogy, Associate Professor, North-Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol, Russian Federation.
Igor P. Makeenko – Ph.D. in Economy, Associate Professor, Technological Institute of Service (affiliated to DSTU), Stavropol, Russian Federation.
Olga V. Kashirina – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Associate Professor, North-Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol, Russian Federation.

Ethnic upbringing is a purposeful interaction of generations, as a result of which ethnic self-consciousness is formed that is adequate to treat oneself as a subject of an ethnic group, a sense of pride in their ethnic group, a positive attitude to the language, history, culture of their ethnic group, as well as a sense of respect and tolerance for representatives of others ethnic groups. The essence of ethnic education is the preservation, formation and development of the ethnic identity of the individual, his culture, self-identity, language based on the continuity of generations, taking into account the changing conditions. As a content and means of ethnic education, the development of ethnosocial roles is considered, the formation of which is the mastery of this role in accordance with age. To preserve their identity, integrity, independence, individual freedom, you first need to understand your ethnic upbringing. This is the first step and at the same time the main thread of life, it is not discrete, it is continuous, it starts from the moment of conception of a child and continues throughout life. However, at the same time, ethnic education is a deeply specific upbringing, it must penetrate the whole spirit of the family, the general educational institution, especially the initial link, and then, really, on the basis of the native, the education of a multicultural personality should be carried out. The ultimate goal of ethnic education is the upbringing of an ethnocultural personality, identifying himself with his own ethnos, which perceives the world through the prism of its national-specific features.

Key words: individual, personality, education, socialization, public relations, cultural and historical experience, culture of ethnos, ethnic culture, ethnocultural values, ethnocultural education

2020 N 2 – Smagina M., Tronina L. Problems of Preservation and Transmission of Domestic Traditional Culture: Philosophical Analysis

Maria V. Smagina – Ph.D. in Sociology, Associate Professor, Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute, Stavropol, Russian Federation.
Larisa A. Tronina – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute, Stavropol, Russian Federation.

In a traditional society, culture performed many complex functions; the leading one was the reproduction of a traditional collectivist personality. The whole society in the process of its existence reproduced this very culture: in labor, holiday, and everyday life. A significant role in this process was played by the ability to read, translate symbolic, symbolic information into senses. That is, performing a ceremony, singing songs, placing a certain pattern or embroidery, the representative of a traditional society should always have a clear idea: why exactly this action is necessary at the moment, which sign is male and which is female. With the violation of the integrity of the traditional society, a change in lifestyle, the traditional division of responsibilities, the whole cultural landscape is changing. The meanings that were invested in rituals and objects are lost, transformed sometimes even by the next generation of cultural bearers. It, like a mirror, reflects all the modernization processes that society has experienced. The root, structural parts of the culture are also preserved in it. In this regard, the question arises, which part of the culture preserves broadcast and presents to the young generation? This dispute has repeatedly arisen among professionals and there is no unambiguous answer to it. This is connected with historical difficulties, with those severe shocks that Russian society suffered.

Key words: cultural politics, values, popular culture, ethnic culture, syncretism, traditionalism, traditional society

2020 N 2 – Zholobova I. The Role of the Religious Component in the History of the Formation of Crimean Karaim Ethnoculture

Irina K. Zholobova – Assistant, Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The article provides historiographic information that allows us to consider various approaches to the problem of the emergence of Crimean Karaites, to reveal the main ethnoculturological and religious features of this now small people due to a combination of factors such as the specificity of the territory of their stay, neighborhood with various peoples, many of which are very close to each other in terms of the features of religion, language and individual traditions. The main content of the article is devoted to the study of religion (Karaism), religious worship, confession of faith, traditions of Crimean Karaites as an integral part of their ethnoculture. In addition, the conducted historical and cultural analysis allows us to refer to the question of the multinational nature of Crimea, currently the Republic of Crimea, a territorial subject of the Russian Federation, where many indigenous and non-indigenous peoples lived and live, distinguished by their ethnicity, culture and religion. Their coexistence could not but leave its mark in the process of forming the ethnoculture of Crimean Karaites, their identity. It is noted that modern conditions are associated with the strengthening of the processes of "ethnic revival" and, at the same time, with the activation of assimilation processes that erode ethnoculturological boundaries.

Key words: ethnoculture, religion, identity, Crimean Karaites, Karaism, the Republic of Crimea, assimilation, traditions

2020 N 2 – Ilyasovа R. Ethno-Cultural Component of Bilingualism in the Chechen Republic under Conditions of Real Monoethnicity

Raisa S. Ilyasovа – Ph.D. in Philology, Associate Professor, Chechen State University, Grozny, Russian Federation.

Most sociolinguistic works devoted to the problem draw attention to the fact that the main factors affecting the language situation are the social conditions of language functioning. They determine both the level of development of the language and the prospects for its preservation and development. In this regard, the following points can be noted about the linguistic situation prevailing in the Chechen Republic, the level and quality of the Chechen-Russian bilingualism in the past and present. The Chechen language in the past, like many other Caucasian languages, was used verbally and existed in the form of living dialects. Religious, philosophical, fiction, scientific and educational literature was published in the Chechen language later. Works of oral folklore, annals, chronicles were recorded, clerical work, training, private correspondence, etc. were conducted. The research results show a clear dependence of the level of the Russian language proficiency on education, age and socio-demographic affiliation. Recently, for example, there has been a clear age tendency among Chechens to switch to Russian as a language of communication, which is precisely connected with the migration process, more precisely, with relocation to other Russian cities due to the war. It can be concluded that the third generation of Chechens who migrated to the Russian cities will be active bilinguals with a predominant knowledge of the Russian language: for example, if the first generation of migrants understands and speaks Chechen, then the second usually only understands, but does not speak (or speaks poorly), and accordingly their children, the third generation will neither understand nor speak Chechen, because people do not speak Chechen with them. The Russian language as a means of interethnic communication is an objective phenomenon. But it should not be accompanied by the displacement of native languages from the sphere of use by the narrowing of their functions and the inhibition of their structural development due to destructive national-language policies. A reasonable, appropriate combination of bilingualism components is needed.

Key words: the Chechen language, native language, the Russian language, bilingualism, comparative description, sociolinguistics

2020 N 2 – Agapov E., Pendyurina L. Social Assistance in the History of the Black Sea Peoples

Evgeny P. Agapov – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Professor, Rostov State University of Economics, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Lyudmila P. Pendyurina – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The article considers the influence of ancient Greek charity on the social assistance of the Black Sea region peoples. Social work became a profession only at the beginning of the last century, but its roots go back to antiquity, when forms of social assistance began to develop among various peoples. It was then that a social assistance mechanism developed, which boiled down to the fact that the family, community and other traditional structures protected everyone. This mechanism of social assistance was characteristic of Tauris, Scythians, Sarmatians and other Black Sea peoples. The same relations were characteristic for Ancient Greece as well as for other states of the Middle East region until the era of antiquity, the beginning of which dates back to the second third of the 1st millennium BC. These relations was marked by the dominance of community ties and the inherited Basileus power as well as the underdevelopment of private property. However, in the 8th century BC in Ancient Greece, structural transformations began, private property relations, the dominance of private commodity production, the exploitation of slaves, the absence of strong centralized power and the policy of self-government came to the fore. With the transformation of the state into an instrument of domination of private owners, social assistance was of a class nature, which manifested itself in the fact that slaves were actually deprived of it. On the other hand, charity, which manifested itself in the organization of public meals, the distribution of money to the needy, the construction of churches and baths through private donations, and other events, became an integral element of the antiquity`s public life. According to the authors, we can talk about two channels of influence of ancient Greek charity on the social assistance of the Black Sea peoples. The first of these channels called direct is associated with the creation of Greek colonies along the Black Sea coast. The second channel can be called indirect, since it was mediated by the culture of Ancient Rome. At the beginning of the 1st millennium in ancient Roman society, a contradiction arose between the need for social assistance and the limited possibilities for its implementation, which was removed by Christianity. According to Christianity, mercy follows from love, which coincides with the essence of God and charity is a practical expression of mercy. Therefore, the spread of Christianity that began in the Black Sea countries in the 4th century contributed to the development of charitable activities in them.

Key words: social work, social assistance, family, community, hospitality, beggars, petition, charity, philanthropy

2020 N 2 – Dzhioev A. Dynamics of Inter-Regional Population Migration in the South of Russia

Alexander V. Dzhioev – Junior Research Fellow, Laboratory of Applied Sociology and Conflictology, Vladikavkaz Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladikavkaz, Russian Federation.

In December 2019, an epidemic of a new acutely infectious disease broke out in the Chinese city of Wuhan, which in two to three months turned into a pandemic of the coronavirus infection COVID-19. The epidemiological, economic, environmental, humanitarian and political crisis has begun on the planet. The world has never come across a similar situation. This is much more serious than what humanity has experienced in last epidemics, when they spread from one continent to another for decades. In early summer 2020, more than 6.5 million people were found to have coronavirus in the world, according to Johns Hopkins University. The article gives a general assessment of the enormous losses of the world economy and the economies of individual States that arose as a result of quarantine during the coronavirus pandemic of 2020, it is shown that, compared with previous crises, this one will be more destructive for the labor market and the exit from it will be longer. The coronavirus epidemic has become a powerful challenge for the Russian labor market. It is concluded that the deterioration of the situation in the Russian economy due to the coronavirus pandemic will lead to increased interregional migration in the coming years, which will negatively affect the parameters of the demographic situation and the quality of the labor market in most of the North Caucasian regions of Russia, and the predicted persistence of high unemployment is associated with high threats to socio-political instability and the growth of social conflict. The author formulated a number of proposals on mitigation of economic consequences of the epidemic and controlling the outflow of working-age population from the regions of the North Caucasus.

Key words: Covid-19 coronavirus pandemic, unemployment rate in Russia, population migration from the regions of the North Caucasus, mitigation of economic consequences of the epidemic

2020 N 2 – Akaev V., Abdulaeva Z. Saving the Ethnocultural Heritage of the Peoples of the North Caucasus as an Alter-native to Asocial Manifestations

Vachit Kh. Akaev – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Professor, Grozny State Oil Technical University, Grozny, Chechen Republic, Russian Federation.
Zaira E. Abdulaeva – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Dagestan State Medical University, Dagestan Republic, Makhachkala, Russian Federation.

The cultural traditions of the peoples of the North Caucasus are distinguished by their diversity, the mosaic appearance that has developed during their centuries-old creative activities. Regional ethnic and sociocultural reality forms the basis of a certain type of civilization, called Caucasus, which is rich in its material and spiritual heritage. The Caucasus civilization is local, colorful, diverse, unique, which is determined by its material and spiritual achievements, values which were left by the ancestors for younger generations, and the latter, contributing their share, give the legacy of the past a modern character. Caucasus civilization is connected with Eastern, Western civilizational types, Slavic-Russian world, that gives ethnocultural heritage a unique, special character. For many contemporaries, the ethno-cultural diversity of the peoples of the Caucasus, including the North Caucasus, is unclear, not because it is archaic, but because it is diverse, syncretic, and has experienced many developments from different cultures and civilizations. The preservation of the ethnic and cultural heritage of the peoples of the Caucasus and its understanding are now an extremely important problem in scientific and cultural terms.

Key words: ethnocultural heritage, traditions, Russia, North Caucasus, Dagestan, Chechnya, diversity, cultural artifacts, asocial processes

2020 N 2 – Dzhabrailov Yu. The Current Status of Ethno-Confessional and National-State Identity of Dagestanis

Yusup Dz. Dzhabrailov – Ph.D. in Politics, Senior Research Fellow, Regional Centre of Ethnopolitical Researches, Daghestan Scientific Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences, Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, Russian Federation.

The article examines the hierarchy of social group identities types (all-Russian, regional, ethnic and religious) based on the results of monitoring the ethno-contact situation in the Republic of Dagestan, in the southernmost region of the Russian Federation. It explains the inconsistency of the sociological study results of on the prevalence of all-Russian identity in the collective consciousness of Dagestanis and at the same time their sense of social affinity with ethnic and religious groups. The author draws attention to the inadmissibility of contrasting ethnic and religious identities with national (civilian) identities and considers the thesis about the direct relationship between the growth of ethno-confessional identity and a decrease in the level of national identification invalid. Since representatives of traditional faith in the region do not support the anti-state views of extremist religious movements. The author believes that if ethno-confessional identity prevails over national identity, it should rather be about omissions in the politics of identity. The study reveals the internal and external reasons for the high level of ethno-confessional identity of the population of the republic. In general, the article notes the tendency of cognitive prevalence of national (state) identity among Dagestanis and the dominance in their minds of a favorable attitude towards multiple identification.

Key words: national identity, ethnic identity, religious identity, culture, Republic of Dagestan

2020 N 2 – Magomedova M. The Role of Muslim Clergy in Countering Radical Ideology in the North Caucasus

Muslimat A. Magomedova – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Senior Research Fellow, Regional Centre of Ethnopolitical Researches, Daghestan Scientific Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences, Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, Russian Federation.

Over the past twenty years, state and municipal authorities, civil society institutions in the North Caucasus have gained great positive experience in countering religious extremism and terrorism. The Muslim clergy had a great influence on the socio-political processes in the republics of the North Caucasus. The leadership of the Spiritual Directorates of Muslims of Russia, the traditional Muslim clergy, and ordinary believers have been fighting against the spread of a radical religious ideology that distorts the basis of Islam for more than two decades. Back in the early 90-s, the Islamic newspapers "Assalam", "Nur-ul-Islam", "Islamic Herald" and the Spiritual Board of Muslims began to explain to the population the whole danger of the ideology of Wahhabism (the extreme form of Salafism, which is commonly called in the republics of the North Caucasus). “Wahhabis” in scientific and journalistic literature are considered to be followers of the religious-political current in Sunni Islam, which arose in the middle of the 18th century based on the teachings of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. Many modern followers of Wahhabism prefer to call themselves Salafiyun, i.e. “walking the path of righteous ancestors” (al-salaf al-salih) – the first generations of Muslims. The article sets the task of analyzing the effectiveness of ideological counteraction to religious extremism and terrorism in the North Caucasus, determining the role of representatives of the Muslim clergy in countering radical religious ideology. The main theological contradictions between the trends in Islam are analyzed. It is shown that representatives of the Muslim clergy play a significant role in the ideological opposition to religious extremism in the North Caucasus.

Key words: North Caucasus, Islam, religious and political extremism, religious extremism, Wahhabism, youth

2020 N 2 – Shishova N., Bondarev V., Tikidzhian R. The Azov-Black Sea Region as a Crossing of Cultures: Factors, Stages, Outcomes of Processes of Cultural Interinfluence

Natalia V. Shishova – Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Vitaliy A. Bondarev – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in History, Professor, Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Ruslan G. Tikidzhian – Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The issue of cultural interaction is highlighted, the relevance of which has increased significantly in the context of the world`s growing confrontation between globalization and counter-globalization. The urgency of this problem is evident in Russia as in the multinational State. One of the regions where such interaction took place most actively is the Azov-Black Sea region. The article examines the dynamics of cultural interinfluence processes in the region. The retrospective analysis has been carried out, which makes it possible to conclude that historically the Azov-Black Sea region has been a crossing of civilizations, where the migratory flows of Western and Eastern civilizations have been directed and where representatives of these civilizations have come into contact with each other. Periodization of intercultural contacts in the region, including a number of qualitatively different stages is supposed. It has been proved that within the boundaries of various stages the cultural influence of various peoples and civilizations has prevailed: the Greeks and the Romans, the Turkic-speaking nomads, the Turks, the Cossack communities, the Russian Empire. While in the era of antiquity the leading role in intercultural interaction was played by the Greeks and then by the Romans, who had a stimulating and guiding effect on the Iranian-speaking nomads of the Scythians and the Sarmatians, in the Middle Ages the situation changed seriously, which was connected with the collapse of the Graeco-Roman colonies due to the arrival of a new wave of nomads, this time Turkic-speaking, in the region. It is noted that the brightest example of active inter-ethnic and intercultural contacts in the Azov-Black Sea region and, at the same time, the extreme importance of these contacts in giving vitality to certain communities and state entities, is the Cossacks, which arose as a result of interaction of a number of different ethnocultural communities. The valid conclusions are the following, first, the leading trends in the Azov-Black Sea region were active inter-ethnic (intercultural) contacts, which resulted not only in the mutual enrichment of cultures and lifestyles of their participants, but also in the formation of new communities, such as the Cossacks; second, these contacts have acted and continue to act as a means of cementing and stimulating the development of multi-ethnic State entities, including Russia.

Key words: the Azov-Black Sea region, the Cossacks, intercultural communications, the Northern Black Sea region, ethnocultural dynamics

2020 N 2 – Khuako F. Gender in Prose as One of the Aspects of the Adyghe Ethnic Consciousness (First Half of the 20th Century)

Fatimet N. Khuako – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philology, Professor, Maykop State Technological University, Maykop, Republic of Adygea, Russian Federation.

We consider the image of a woman and its reflection in literature using examples of the work of Adyghe authors of the first half of the 20th century (H. Teuchezha, J. Tlyusten, A. Evtykh). The author turns to regional North Caucasian scientific works affecting gender issues, argues the idea of the peculiarity of this line among the Adyghe with their ethnic consciousness. It is concluded that there is little coverage of the image of a woman in literary criticism, especially in an ethnic (Adyghe) context. The traditionality of the Adyghe ethnic group is analyzed in detail; the problem of discrimination in relation to the Adyghe woman in the family; the charactero-logical series of the female image both in society and in the family, and in works: hard work, needlework, etc., as well as the ability to survive in a difficult situation. Based on a number of traits of a female character both in the ethnic group and in the works there is the assertion that it is permissible to consider the Adyghe woman’s right to positively influence conflict situations in society as evidence of the absence of any discrimination that could directly and fruitfully influence the development of centuries of ethnic consciousness.

Key words: gender, woman as an image, Adyghe, prose, ethnic group, first half of the 20th century

2020 N 2 – Dashkova E., Ivushkina E. “The Silk Route“ as a Tourist Resource

Elena V. Dashkova – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Chechen State University, Grozny, Chechen Republic, Russian Federation.
Elena B. Ivushkina – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Professor, Chechen State University, Grozny, Chechen Republic, Russian Federation.

The North Caucasus is one of the most beautiful and mysterious corners of the planet Earth. Amazing nature, majestic mountain peaks and ancient monuments attract numerous tourists. One of the important tasks of social and economic development of Russia is the creation of large-scale modern tourist zones or, as it is now said, destinations in the North Caucasus. The famous Silk Route, which played a unique role in the social, economic and cultural development of the regions of Eurasian space, was here centuries ago. The Silk Route (SR) is a grandiose trade route which connected the East and the West. It has caused the emergence of unique cities, historical monuments, customs and even states. In fact, it was a system of caravan roads leading from China to the countries in the Middle East and Europe. The Silk Route trails are resources for developing modern tourist routes. According to the World Tourism Organization (WTO) the Silk Route is the longest modern tourist route in the world. It covers Europe, Asia and Africa and links three oceans: Pacific, Indian and Atlantic. The Silk Route also passed through the southern territories of the Russian Federation and now Russia has become one of the active participants of the International Tourism Project "The Silk Route." In order to implement the international tourism project on this subject, it is necessary to develop new tourist routes based on the resources of the entities of the North Caucasus Federal District.

Key words: The Silk Route, culture, tourism, tourist route, tourist resources

2020 N 3 – Goncharov V., Tronina L., Khokhlova E. Socio-Philosophical Analysis of Labour Traditions: Ethnocultural Aspect of the Study

Vadim N. Goncharov – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Krasnodar University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Stavropol, Russian Federation.
Larisa A. Tronina – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute, Stavropol, Russian Federation.
Elena A. Khokhlova – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, North Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol, Russian Federation.

In the development of modern society, organizational and ideological educational activities are important. Successful realization of economic and social development is impossible without taking into account human factor, in particular skills and knowledge of people, their production experience. Therefore, cultural, economic and everyday traditions are now gaining real significance, especially in different regional conditions. The increasing interest in folk culture is determined not only by the needs of the spiritual sphere, but also by the practical conditionality and vitality of folk labor traditions. This creates the need to study cultural and historical experience of the people and their practical application. The range of problems related to labor traditions is very wide. Some of them are important for the whole country, while others have regional specifics. Domestic researchers consider labor traditions as a constantly operating element of folk culture, concentrating collective experience transmitted from generation to generation. Under the influence of socio-economic and economic changes, some of them become anachronism and die off, while others, transforming, retain their significance. Some of them are secondary forms generated by new production and living conditions, by both previous and new labor experience.

Key words: traditions, culture, ethnic processes, society, consciousness, education, values

2020 N 3 – Melnichuk P. Hybrid Nature of the Armed Conflict in The Syrian Arab Republic

Мельничук Павел Станиславович – Военный университет Министерства обороны Российской Федерации, г. Москва, Российская Федерация.

The essence and content of the armed conflict in Syria is considered through the prism of the concept of a hybrid war. The main focus is on the analysis of various points of view on nature, goals, instruments of a hybrid war, presented in the domestic and foreign literature. It is shown that in modern international conflicts, the emphasis is increasingly shifting towards the integrated use of political, economic, information and other non-military measures implemented with the support of the military force. The need to bring the defense strategy of the Russian Federation in line with the challenges and threats of the information era, the development of the Russian strategy for a hybrid war and a counter-hybrid war is justified. It is concluded that it is important to understand the basic principles of an information-psychological war as well as the need for correct and successful use of sign and symbolic means within the framework of an information confrontation.

Key words: nonclassical war, information war, hybrid war, proxy war, colour revolution, asymmetrical war, civil war in Syria, armed conflict, humanitarian mission, special operations forces, cyber-attacks

2020 N 3 – Keleberda N., Atanesyan A. Informational Society and Optimization of Education in the Current Circumstances: Russian and Armenian Experience

Nina G. Keleberda – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Rostov Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Arthur V. Atanesyan – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Politics, Professor, Yerevan State University, Yerevan, Armenia.

The introduction of technology into education leads to a revision of the boundaries of knowledge: disciplines disappear, the "territories" of sciences are eroded, making room for (so to speak) "network research." The hypothesis is put forward that the optimization of education is both a condition and a consequence of an ideological shift. The content of the concept "optimization of education" in the context of the development of digital technologies in education is considered, defining "optimization" as a technique. The novelty of the research is presented by a comparative analysis of the development of the process of optimizing education in Russia and in Armenia. The relevance of this approach is due to the need to coordinate efforts to develop the information society both in the format of bilateral relations between Russia and Armenia, and within the Black Sea states. The authors rely on the analysis of the concepts of national developments, which fix the prospects and goals of the development of information technologies and the information society in Russia and Armenia. Having studied the strategic sectors and technological spheres of Armenia, it is concluded that Armenia, being a regional leader in the development of information technologies, supplies most of these developments to the USA and Canada, and a smaller part to Russia. The conclusion confirms the hypothesis that the introduction of new digital technologies in the educational process carries certain risks due, on the one hand, to the quality of educational services in the context of optimizing the educational process, and on the other, to a radical change in the consciousness and thinking of a modern person with using the same optimization.

Key words: Russia, Armenia, information society, optimization of education, digital science, digitalization, information technologies

2020 N 3 – Khudina J., Wiegel N., Shishkanova J. Well-Managed Fears of the Culture of Globalization: Orthorexia

Julia S. Khudina – Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry, Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Narine L. Wiegel – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Professor, Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Julia O. Shishkanova – Student, Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The article deals with the influence of modern culture and society on the formation of the level of personality perception. Features of human interaction with environmental reality in extreme conditions (self-isolation period in conditions of COVID-19 pandemic) are considered separately. Features of social influence on formation of so-called social fears are shown. The problem of fear has its own history and remains relevant in modern society. Together with the development of society, fear takes on new forms, and unlike, for example, the fear of primitive man – darkness, loneliness and unclean power – the fears of modern man are directed by the cultural dominants of globalization into the field of science. Fear is not only inevitable, but also necessary, it is called upon to energize the forces of a person and stop him in moments of danger. Fear also has a number of negative qualities, directing human actions into a destructive channel. Only through rationalization is it possible to get away from a negative scenario to a positive one, thus managing your fear. The ability to adequately perceive reality, constructive marketing offers is the principle of common sense of a person. Analyzing a healthy lifestyle as a brand and direction of the culture of globalization, and in particular proper nutrition, the authors of the article call for a responsible approach to the new proposals of the consumption society in the context of the formation of human habits and lifestyle of the 21st century.

Key words: beauty, proper nutrition, healthy lifestyle, controlled fears, globalization, orthorexia

2020 N 3 – Evstropov V., Trushkova E. Modern Ideas About Ecogenesis

Vladimir M. Evstropov – M.D., Associate Professor, Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Ekaterina A. Trushkova – Ph.D. in Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

A.V. Kozachek proposed to call the process, characterizing the historical development of the content of ecological science and pedagogy, ecological genesis. In this regard, he proposed an approach according to which, in order to understand the essence and current state of the object of the professional activity of an environmental engineer, it is necessary to analyze the features of the development of environmental science in terms of the formation of a set of environmental knowledge as a tool of "transfer" in the learning process from a teacher to the listener in its development during historical time. From our point of view, ecogenesis can be considered much broader than just the evolution of the object of ecological knowledge and ecological knowledge. If we proceed from the fact that etymologically ecogenesis can be regarded as the origin of ecology, then its study should reflect the widely represented historical-ecological composition of its various aspects of theoretical and applied nature. Analyzed, developed by various researchers, methodological approaches, one way or another reflecting various aspects of ecology. Approaches to the study of ecological genesis are possible from the standpoint of classifications for the construction of ecological laws and theories, the periodization of ecology based on a change in paradigms, based on an analysis of the development of theoretical research in ecology, the study of ecology from the standpoint of a systemic and formalized mathematical approach. We believe that the whole set of analyzed approaches can serve as the basis for the doctrine of ecological genesis, reflecting the most diverse aspects of the emergence and development of ecology as a science and environmental education for the successful practical activity of a specialist in the field of ecology.

Key words: ecology, ecogenesis, periodization of ecology, conceptual systems, classification of the construction of ecological laws

2020 N 3 – Petrova Yu., Bukreyeva V. Culture of The Peoples of the Balkan Peninsula: History and Modern Influence of Turkey

Yulia A. Petrova – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Rostov State University of Economics, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Valeriya V. Bukreyeva – Student, Rostov State University of Economics, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The article examines the cultural penetration of the Ottoman Empire into the territory of the Balkan Peninsula. The once developing peoples of the Balkans, overcoming their own crises, are becoming an indispensable goal of a rapidly emerging empire. The proximity to Europe and close interaction with it became a decisive factor for its conquest, as well as the inability of the allied countries to resist the Ottomans. The gradual seizure led to the complete elimination of most of the existing in the 12th century independent states. For the most part, the dialogue of cultures took place as a forced assimilation. The result was the complete displacement of a foreign culture outside its own territory. Despite this, some of the cultural aspects have firmly entered the life of ordinary people and have become entrenched in it as part of their own culture. This article is dedicated to identifying these entrenched traditions as well as Turkey`s contemporary influence in the Balkans.

Key words: Balkans, Turkey, culture, language, traditions

2020 N 3 – Dzhioeva I., Gurieva L., Techov A. State Policy of South Ossetia During the Restoration of Agriculture in 1920-1930

Irina K. Dzhioeva – Ph.D. in Economics, Associate Professor, South Ossetian State University, Tskhinval, Republic of South Ossetia.
Lira K. Gurieva – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Economics, Professor, North Ossetian State University, Vladikavkaz, Russian Federation.
Albert V. Techov – Ph.D. in Economics, Associate Professor, South Ossetian State University, Tskhinval, Republic of South Ossetia.

The article is devoted to the study of the unique historical experience of agricultural development in South Ossetia during the implementation of the new economic policy of 1920-1930. The authors focus on the problems of collective farm construction and agricultural cooperation in South Ossetia, as well as new mechanisms of state management in the agricultural sector of the economy during the study period. It is shown that since agriculture was not directly subordinated to the state by 1920, it was very difficult to coordinate the labor and economic activities of peasant farms, as well as to manage their innovative development; in addition, the situation was extreme and did not allow the use of administrative methods of management. The only thing that the state could afford during this period was to increase the efficiency of management of this industry by economic methods. Thus, there were new incentives for peasant farms to expand the volume of commodity production. As a rule, the agrarian-industrial transformation corresponds to the free market, especially in agriculture, but this was not typical for Russia attempts at market transformations in the agricultural sector were stopped for the first time by the revolution of 1917. As for the new economic policy, it was an effective market regulator that takes into account the current economic situation in the country, in particular, in the period under study– the reluctance of farmers to sell grain below the market price, and buy essential goods at prices several times higher above their cost, which in any reforms severely limits the amount of savings. In this situation, people only try to consume, not invest, because of distrust of the financial policy of the state. Using the successful experience of agricultural reforms during the NEP period can help solve the problems of sustainable rural development in South Ossetia in the XXI century.

Key words: South Ossetia, agricultural reform, collective farm-state farm system, personal household plots

2020 N 3 – Akaev V., Vagabova N. Interrelation Between Ethnic Culture and Religion: General and Specific Connections

Vachit Kh. Akaev – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Professor, Chief Research Worker, Comprehensive Research Institute named after H.I. Ibragimov of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Grozny, Chechen Republic, Russian Federation.
Naida M. Vagabova – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Dagestan State University, Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, Russian Federation.

The interrelation between "ethnic culture" and "religion" is conceived, identifying both general and specific aspects. Ethnic culture is regarded as a result of the activities of representatives of the ethnic group, which allowed them to communicate, consolidate, focusing on the search for prospects for their development. Traditional culture, national culture and mass culture are correlated with ethnic culture. Despite some proximity of these phenomena, they differ from each other, and in the course of their comparison, general and special aspects are distinguished. It is justified that religion is an integral part of ethnic culture, forming a certain worldview among the ethnic group, raising its spiritual level. The spiritual development of the ethnic group, along with folklore plots, based on religious values, are preserved in the ethnic culture itself. Historically outgrowing the volume of ethnic culture, religion spreads among different peoples, ceasing to be a part of the culture of an individual ethnic group, but at the same time becoming a factor in the unification of various cultural characteristics. When considering the interrelation between religion and nation, their specific relationship should be noted. Thus, being a component of national culture, religion takes an active part in the formation of national identity, spiritual consolidation and unity of people.

Key words: culture, ethnic culture, national culture, religion, Islam, Sufism, Wahhabism, North Caucasus

2020 N 3 – Nesmeyanov E. Religious and Secular Theories of a Lie in The Russian Philosophy of the 19-20th Centuries

Evgeny E. Nesmeyanov – Ph.D. (Advanced Doctorate) in Philosophy, Professor, Chair, Department of "Philosophy and World Religions", Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The last third of the XX and the first decade of the XXI centuries. show the growth of scientific and scientific-journalistic works on the problems of the peculiarities and forms of existence of deception and lies in European culture and social life. Concepts have emerged that prove the necessity and value of certain forms of lying to preserve the state, family, and the implementation of real practice of communication between people. Some psychological and pedagogical works substantiate the idea of the importance of lying and deceit for the development of the child`s intellectual abilities and prosperity in the society of an adult. With all the variety of theoretical sources on this topic, there are much fewer generalizing philosophical and cultural studies of lies and deception. This article is an attempt to partially fill this shortcoming. The article begins with an analysis of the rather well-known phenomenon of “Russian lies” as a real mental feature of Russian culture, initially considered in fiction and religious philosophy in Russia (late 19th and first third of the 20th centuries). Based on the analysis of the works of F.M. Dostoevsky, I.A. Ilyina and L.N. Andreeva, shows the influence of the concept of lies of Augustine (Father of the Church of the 4th century) on the theory of "Russian lies" or "All-Russian lies". The author substantiates the decisive influence of Augustine on the views of Russian thinkers associated with the advancement of the problem of lies to the status of the most important moral, religious and socio-psychological theme of Christian theology. The transition of the problem of lies and lies from the Christian-colored religious-philosophical "paradigm" created by Augustine to the secular axiological view of L.N. Andreev, and then, to a complete change of emphasis and the identification of new meanings and facets of this problem Yu.M. Lotman. It is concluded that the theory of Yu.M. Lotman "closes" the problem of "Russian lies" as a negative characteristic of the Russian mentality, taking the phenomenon out of the field of religious philosophy and morality into the sphere of cultural studies. At the same time, the concept of Yu.M. Lotman does not refute the theory of Augustine, which retains its relevance for understanding the modern system of spiritual values in Russian culture of the XXI century.

Key words: falseness, deception, betrayal, duplicity, irony, lies, everyday lies, a virtuous lie, Russian lies, All-Russian lies, surreal speaking, alternative history, corrected reality, unmotivated deception, spiritual values, freedom, humanity, truth, morality

Don State Technical University
Tbilisi State University
Moldavian association of international law
DANUBIUS University
Varna Free University 'Chernorizets Hrabar'