Meskhi B.Ch., Astvatsaturov A.E. Human factor in solving engineering problems of safety / annotation
Meskhi Besarion Chokhoevich – Ph.D. of technical study, professor. Rector of Don state technical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russia.
The article presents the principles and methods of engineering disciplines of engineering in the process of design and construction of self-propelled work machines, in order to ensure favorable and safe working conditions; based on many years of research in the laboratories of the Department of Security of life and the creation of DSTU discipline "Engineering Ergonomics", based on the priority principles of human factor, showing the methodological and technical development principles of comfortable workplace human-machine operator; it is considered prospects for improving the harmonic connection hardware and the human factor in the self-propelled machines, safety.
Key words: safety, technosphere, human-machine-engineering ergonomics, man-machine, factor.
Kvesitadze G.I., Meskhi B.Ch. Ecological potential of plants / annotation
Kvesitadze Giorgi – Ph.D. of biology, professor, president of Georgia National Academy of Sciences. Tbilisi, Georgia.
To date increasing military activities, production of chemicals, unpredictable growth of industry and transport, urbanization, the permanent increase of contamination of all biological sources by chemical compounds of toxic nature are observed. Naturally formed emission of poisonous gases, the washing of toxic elements out of ore during floods or earthquakes, formation by microorganisms toxic compounds etc. are a very little as compared with human anthropogenic contribution in environments contamination. Nowadays, there are experimental data obviously demonstrating that plants activate a definite set of biochemical and physiological processes to resist the toxic action of contaminants by using following physiological/biochemical mechanisms. Ecotechnologies based on combination of microorganisms and plants allow widening the most modern understanding of remediation potential on a scale significantly exceeding any local or even national level. Elaboration of a new ecological concept, unifying experience accumulated for last 3-4 decades and based on effective use phytoremediation/remediation (plants/microbial) joint potential should be highly beneficial for the whole world, by increasing its ecological potential.
Key words: ecology, plants, plant growing, chemical compounds, phytiremidiation.
Kvesitadze G., Meskhi B., Khatisashvili G. Three stage biotechnology for the rehabilitation of soils polluted with explosives / annotation
Giorgi Kvesitadze – Ph.D. of biology, professor, president of Georgia national academy of sciences. Tbilisi, Georgia. Besarion Ch. Meskhi - Ph.D of technical studies, professor. Rector of Don state technical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation Gia Khatisashvili – Ph.D. of biological sciences, professor. Agricultural university of Georgia. Tbilisi, Georgia.
Widespread contamination of the environment by explosives due to the manufacture, disposal and testing of munitions has become a major international concern connected with the increasing scale of soil and ground water contamination. Most explosives are considered to be a major hazard to the biological system due to their high toxicity and mutagenic effects. Research on biotransformation of explosives has clearly shown that some plants and several families of aerobic microorganisms, representing different taxonomic groups of microorganisms, have the potential to transform TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), RDX (hexogen – hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) and other nitro organic explosives to non toxic products. Despite the existence of such extensive data, there is no reliable information dealing with the affordable clean up technology of explosives. To evaluate the disappearance of TNT and its intermediate products, in the last decade, great attention has been paid to microorganisms (both eukaryotes and prokaryotes) and plants. Microorganisms being well established detoxifiers, of structurally varying contaminants, are promising natural tools that allows to sustain the ecological balance. The ability of plants to cleanup the environment has still attracted relatively little attention, having no long story. Although plants play an important role in sustaining and restoring all niches of the environment due to their ability to absorb and metabolize quite a wide spectrum of various contaminants of organic nature, plants for cleanup the environment has attracted relatively little attention having no long story. Research carried out for more than 30 years, with annual and perennial plants and various families of different taxonomic groups of microorganisms have revealed their potential to absorb and metabolize organic contaminants of different structure. Three laboratories, at Durmishidze Institute of Biochemistry and Biotechnology (Georgia) have carried out research aimed at the creation of a new biotechnological approach for rehabilitation of soils polluted with explosives based on joint, symbiotic action of microorganisms and plants.