Zhbannikova M., Milenkaya K. Beginning of medicine history study in Turkey: education and publications / annotation
Zhbannikova Marina – lecturer of National history dpt. Institute of history and international relations of Southern federal university; assistant of history and philosophy dpt. Rostov state medical university; scientific worker of the branch of Moscow university of S. Vitte. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Globalization processes significantly increase in the modern world, the scientists more often deviate from regional researches to more extensive territorial researches, comprising not only the region of their habitation. Black Sea region - the territory, which originally was a centre of a highly developed culture, science and medicine. An attempt to give historiographic review of researches, produced mainly in Istanbul in the period from the end of XIX century, when the first publications appeared according to the theme ofTurkish medical history, and to the first part of ХХ century is undertaken in the given writing, dedicated to medicine history in Turkey. The subject matter is formation, historical evolution and the modern state of medicine history in Turkey, predominantly published in Istanbul. The problems of medicine history teaching touched upon in Turkey, connected with language and linguistic peculiarities, creation of dictionaries, which helped to use the basic medical terms and conceptions. It is shown how medicine history education in Turkish language and also history of development and formation of this process were important for the students and listeners. The emersion of Turkish books on medical history, as of Turkish authors (for instance, MekhmetEminFekhmi), so the translated writings (Huseyin Ramsey – “Tarih-iTıb”) is very significant. It is interesting that even the workers of various Istanbul hospitals could be the authors of the books. The first years of ХХ century were marked by the works, where the researches of medical historical societies (RysaTahsin – “Mirat-iMektebiTıbbiye”) were described. The works on Turkish medicine history were actively developed in 20-s of ХХ century under conditions of young Turkish republic formation. The challenges in the given work are: to generally consider the biographies of outstanding Turkish medicine historians and their writings, wrote in the first part of ХХ century, which contributed to Turkish science.
Milenkaya K., Zhbannikova M. Educational and organizational peculiarities of pharmaceutics development in Turkish Republic / annotation
Milenkaya Kseniya – leading archeograph. State archive of Rostov region. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
More often historians began to address to various aspects of the medicine history, the regional peculiarities of its formation and development. However, there are practically no articles, dedicated to medicine development in Turkey, and particularly, concerning Turkish pharmaceutics in Russia. We considered some aspects of pharmaceutical branch formation in Turkish republic from 1923 to the present time. The role and tools of state support in creation of innovative pharmaceutical production, including the training of highly skilled Turkish specialists is defined. One comes to the conclusion that high import dependency of domestic market medications and medical goods appears to be unacceptable from the point of view of national security. The given problem was solved in a complex. Secondly, university reform was conducted, directed to secular education improvement, including pharmaceutical one. Lecturers, who did not prove scientific character of their work, were practically almost removed from Istanbul university, and new foreign lecturers were invited, mainly from Germany, whose works on pharmaceutics and related sciences passed scientific approbation. The history of basic professional pharmacological associations and societies are touched upon in the article. The challenges and activities of professional pharmaceutical associations are disclosed.
Milenkaya K., Zhbannikova M. Contemporary Turkish language: historical-cultural aspects / annotation
Kseniya A. Milenkaya – leading archeograph. State archive of Rostov region. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
The history of the cotemporary Turkish language development is considered, special attention is given to the question of Turkish alphabet formation. The instances of grammatical constructions are given for illustration of Turkish word-formation and word-inflection agglutinative peculiarities. It is marked the mutual penetration of foreign borrowings into Turkish language, as well asTurkisms into other languages, including the Russian language. It is mentioned the documents of the XVIII-XIX centuries, stored in the State Archives of the Rostov Region, which reflect examples of centuries-old relations with the Turkish neighbor. The basic part of the article is dedicated to the language reforms, conducted by Ataturk after the Turkish republic formation. A brief excursion into the history of the Turkish Historical Council and the Turkish Language Society creation was given, directions of their work, structure and leaders were characterized. The reforms results are givenas the conclusion of the article.
Milenkaya K., Zhbannikova M. Tradititional turkish and cossack wedding ceremonies: general and peculiar (Saf-ranbolu and Cossack village Nizhne-Kundryuchenskoj examples) / annotation
Kseniya A. Milenkaya – head of the Informational and Publication Department of the Rostov Region State Archive, Russian Federation.
A comparative analysis of a traditional wedding ritualism in Turkish and Cossack cultures on the example of Safranbolu region and Cossack village Nizhne-Kundryuchenskoj. A wedding ritualism is regarded as inherent human need in ritualization important vital events, the preservation of the ancestral memory of wedding traditions in songs, tales etc. Turkish and Cossack principles of marriage proposal in these regions are analyzed. Cossack wedding traditions of the 19th century combined pagan beliefs and Christianity. Such a synthesis is typical for the traditional Turkish wedding, where along with the Islamic traditions there are remnants of the pre-Islamic period. For thousands of years, the traditions of many peoples of Anatolia, the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, the Caucasus, Eastern Europe, Central Asia and, of course, the ancient world have merged into an unexpected amalgamation, which today is commonly called the Turkish, or Asia Minor culture. This paper explores special features of rituals and traditions accompanying marriage ceremonies in Safranbolu and Nizhne-Kundryuchenskoj. Community rituals historically accompanied the most important events in a human life in Ancient Russia and Turkey. They were sacred being carefully passed through the generations. Many strange traditions were perfectly kept up to now. A contemporary challenge nowadays is to optimize cooperation of cultures and rituals between nations with different upbringing and development of the person based on local traditions.