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Vigel N., Zholobova I. Heroic epos of North Caucasus nations as basis for ethnical culture of Adygea people / annotation

Narine L. Vigel – Ph.D., professor. Rostov state medical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Irina K. Zholobova – assistant. Rostov state medical university. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The current socially-political situation induced the representatives of various knowledge spheres to pay a special attention to customs, manners and traditions of North Caucasus people, to peculiarities of their spirituality and culture. The significant interest to mythology, religion, epos and intercultural interaction of various ethnical communities is connected not only with a demand in the culture dialogue, in contact points establishment in modern society multicultural space, but also with necessity of foundations search for spiritual and moral upbringing of the rising generation. Oral poetical creation is a unique and rich source of cultural self-determination. Study of epical heritage is a significant constituent of upbringing in the spirit of regardful and tolerant attitude, opposition to nationalism and xenophobia in multinational government.Narts heroic epos, to analysis of which a lot of scientific works of various knowledge spheres specialists are dedicated to (ethnographers, philologists, culturologists, philosophers and sociologists) is considered to be the fundamental monument of oral folk art in the North Caucasus.Heroic epos “Narts”, referred to culturally-historical heritage of Adygea inhabitants, as the brightest phenomenon of their spiritual culture, gives possibility to come to consideration of ethno-specific values and ideals, allowing to speak about hero phenomenon, whose supertemporal and supracultural character is incontestable.An epic hero, being the bearer of a row of qualities, separating him from the number of majority of qualities and characteristics, virtually, represents some “archetype” – extra-significant suggestive image of cultural space. The actions performed by him are considered as heroic, and pass to the category of achievements, but locality and subjects, connected with them acquire a ritual, sacred character. The epos “Narts”, ancient monument of Adygea culture, defined heroic-epical traditions of Adygea people, the hero has those features, which are the most valuable, ethno-specific and allow him to survive in the mountain severe conditions. At the same time a lot of them are considered to be universal, generally-cultural and socially-significant, especially in the modern society. The question is about such moral qualities, as humanity and honesty.Nart epos also reflects specific peculiarities of a genuine “Nart person”, as a warrior, possessing several languages, honest, smart and sagacious, knowing enough information about traditions and way of life of neighboring people, hospitable, capable to estimate and admit advantages of any person even an enemy. Mainly these moral traditions comprise that valuable basis, which allows speaking about traditional culture of Adygeya people, reproduction of archaic values in modernity, about upbringing bases in this culture and that spiritually-moral potential, which it bears in itself.

Zholobova I. The Role of the Religious Component in the History of the Formation of Crimean Karaim Ethnoculture / annotation

Irina K. Zholobova – Assistant, Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The article provides historiographic information that allows us to consider various approaches to the problem of the emergence of Crimean Karaites, to reveal the main ethnoculturological and religious features of this now small people due to a combination of factors such as the specificity of the territory of their stay, neighborhood with various peoples, many of which are very close to each other in terms of the features of religion, language and individual traditions. The main content of the article is devoted to the study of religion (Karaism), religious worship, confession of faith, traditions of Crimean Karaites as an integral part of their ethnoculture. In addition, the conducted historical and cultural analysis allows us to refer to the question of the multinational nature of Crimea, currently the Republic of Crimea, a territorial subject of the Russian Federation, where many indigenous and non-indigenous peoples lived and live, distinguished by their ethnicity, culture and religion. Their coexistence could not but leave its mark in the process of forming the ethnoculture of Crimean Karaites, their identity. It is noted that modern conditions are associated with the strengthening of the processes of "ethnic revival" and, at the same time, with the activation of assimilation processes that erode ethnoculturological boundaries.

Zholobova I. Old Turkic Religious Beliefs as a Part of Spiritual Culture of Turkic-Speaking Peoples of the Crimea / annotation

Irina K. Zholobova – Assistant, Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The peculiarities of worldview and spiritual culture of Turkic people are considered, due to general historical, ethnogenetic, cultural and religious factors. The influence of the old Turkic nomadic component on the formation of the religious system and ethnoculture of peoples is noted. The main attention is paid to the features of the cult associated with the veneration of the most ancient deity Tengri, references to which are still found and indicate the syncretic nature, the presence of assimilated autochthonous beliefs in religious systems, in the part of spiritual culture of such Turkic-speaking peoples as the Crimean Karaites, the Crimeans and the Crimean Tatars. Information about Tengrianism is given, the characteristic of cult practice in relation to Heaven is given, the significance of the cult of ancestors and the cult of veneration of sacred trees is noted, which have until recently remained relevance for the indigenous peoples of the Crimea, especially for the Crimean Karaites.

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