Evstropov V., Trushkova E., Egorova Yu. General Characteristic of Modern Ecology Structure / annotation
Vladimir M. Evstropov – PhD of medicine, associate professor, professor of "Safety of Engineering Procedures and Productions" department. Don State Technical University. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Initially ecology was understood by E. Haeckel as a general science about the relations of organisms with the environment. Subsequently the definition of ecology as a science about the relations of organisms or groups of organisms to the environment surrounding them became traditional. Modern ecology is closely connected not only with various biological disciplines but also with geography, chemistry, geology, i.e. it became the cross-disciplinary science. Modern ecology is subdivided into six directions. Bioecology is characterized as classical ecology, and global ecology is characterized as geographical ecology. The prerogative of regional ecology is the studying of specific features of the specific region. Applied ecology includes engineering, nature protection, construction, radiation, agricultural ecology, etc. Physiological ecology, ecotoxicology, ecoparasitology, production ecology (sanitary ecology), adaptation ecology, etc. are related to the ecology of person. Social ecology studies ecological features of interaction of society with the nature. Some researchers consider modern science ecology, according to ecological biocentrism as a branching of biological science representing, according to them, the system of sciences. There is also a compromise point of view according to which ecology considers the developed conditions of dwelling of the person and other organisms (the biological direction), and hygiene studies influence of the habitat on human health (the medical direction). According to our opinion, the ecology of the person, in particular its section "sanitary ecology" can be a link between ecology and hygiene. We believe that in the researches within this section of ecology it is possible to apply medical and biological approaches and indicators. According to the physical and ecological concept of evolution of ecosystems the researchers allow prebiological evolutionary change of these systems from preecosystems to primitive ecosystems. The ecology as an industry of knowledge, evolves in the process of learning of ecosystems in the aspect of a scientific picture of the World from the simplest physical and ecological concept of evolution of ecosystems to the globalization of ecology in the form of cross-disciplinary area of knowledge about the device and functioning of multilevel systems in nature and society in their interrelation.
Evstropov V., Trushkova E., Nikhayeva A. Recent Research Questions of Ecological Aspects of the Interaction of the Organism and the Environment / annotation
Vladimir M. Evstropov – M. D., Associate Professor, Professor, Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
For a single organism, the characteristics of levels of organization of living matter are the following: moleculargene, supramolecular, cellular, tissular, and organ ones. Organismic, population-species, and biocenotic levels of organization of living matter are characteristic of a set of organisms. Organisms can also act as an environmental factor. Nanobacteria, widely distributed in environmental compartments (in particular in water), can initiate various diseases in humans and are a new environmental factor (a bioindicator of ecological problems in the environment). The presence of organisms of some other species (staphylo-cocci, salmonella, ETEC) in surface waters has also unfavorable nature and is a criterion of sanitary-hygienic assessment of the epidemic hazard of these waters, testifying to the unfavorable environmental situation. Moreover, vice versa, organisms (biota) can clean and heal water bodies thanks to the processes of phytoremediation, bioremediation and zoore-mediation. The environment is considered as a complex of natural bodies and phenomena with which the body is in direct or indirect relationships, as part of nature, surrounding a living organism and having a direct or indirect effect on its state and functioning (growth, development, survival, reproduction, etc.) The habitat is a combination of objects, phenomena and environmental factors that determines the living conditions of living creatures, natural conditions in all the same habitats. According to the qualitative specificity of the complexes of conditions providing an opportunity for life, they distinguish living environments mastered by living organisms: water, land (air-ground living environment), soil and organism (for parasites and symbionts). Moreover, organisms exist in one or more environments of life. Organisms living in the internal environment of the host organism (blood, lymph, tissue) underwent significant adaptation and protective modifications: co-adaptation of the parasite and the host, symbionts to each other, the formation of the parasite`s protection against digestion by the host and the system of local fixation in the environment, strengthening sexual reproduction, reduction of vision and digestive system, synchronization of biorhythms with biorhythms of the host organism. There are two strategies for the development of living creatures: the r-strategy, which implies rapid reproduction and short life, and the k-strategy, which is characterized by a low rate of reproduction and long life. In accordance with the r-strategy, the population develops in adverse environmental conditions, but the frequent generational changes that occur at the same time contribute to the consolidation of useful mutations that allow the most successful resistance to adverse effects.
Evstropov V., Trushkova E. Modern Ideas About Ecogenesis / annotation
Vladimir M. Evstropov – M.D., Associate Professor, Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
A.V. Kozachek proposed to call the process, characterizing the historical development of the content of ecological science and pedagogy, ecological genesis. In this regard, he proposed an approach according to which, in order to understand the essence and current state of the object of the professional activity of an environmental engineer, it is necessary to analyze the features of the development of environmental science in terms of the formation of a set of environmental knowledge as a tool of "transfer" in the learning process from a teacher to the listener in its development during historical time. From our point of view, ecogenesis can be considered much broader than just the evolution of the object of ecological knowledge and ecological knowledge. If we proceed from the fact that etymologically ecogenesis can be regarded as the origin of ecology, then its study should reflect the widely represented historical-ecological composition of its various aspects of theoretical and applied nature. Analyzed, developed by various researchers, methodological approaches, one way or another reflecting various aspects of ecology. Approaches to the study of ecological genesis are possible from the standpoint of classifications for the construction of ecological laws and theories, the periodization of ecology based on a change in paradigms, based on an analysis of the development of theoretical research in ecology, the study of ecology from the standpoint of a systemic and formalized mathematical approach. We believe that the whole set of analyzed approaches can serve as the basis for the doctrine of ecological genesis, reflecting the most diverse aspects of the emergence and development of ecology as a science and environmental education for the successful practical activity of a specialist in the field of ecology.