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Baskaeva Zh., Tatrova F. Historical Milestones in the Development of Preschool Education in the Russian Federation / annotation
Zhanna Kh. Baskaeva – Ph.D. in Pedagogy, Associate Professor, North Ossetian State University after K.L. Khetagurov, Vladikavkaz, Russian Federation.
In the course of evolutionary historical development in Russia, the national education system has been built and it is developing, including preschool, school, multi-level professional and additional education. Preschool education in the modern Russian Federation is understood as education, training and development, as well as supervision, care and rehabilitation of children of preschool age from 2 months to 7 years. According to the analytical report of the international audit and consulting company FinExpertiza, in 2019 78.9% of Russian babies (4.1 million children) under the age of 3 years did not attend a day nursery. At the same time, the largest share of babies under the age of 3 years who do not attend nurseries is recorded, according to the study, in the Republic of Ingushetia. Here, 96.59% of toddlers stay with their mothers, and only 800 out of 23,492 children of the republic under the age of 3 visit the nursery. This figure is slightly lower in the Republic of Dagestan. Here 94.22%, or 139,205 babies stayed at home, and 8 540 babies go to the nursery. In third place is the Republic of Crimea, in which 91.13% of toddlers are with their parents at home, and only 8.87%, or 5,665 kindergarten children attend. Given the fact that in Russia now more than a third of young families with a child are not provided with preschool institutions, and in the south of Russia these statistics are even higher, preparing parents for the basics of family preschool education is becoming one of the most important tasks of youth family policy. It is obvious that the system of preschool education, like the entire system of relations in the field of education and upbringing of the younger generation, is influenced by powerful civilizational and technological trends, which often destroy historical features and national traditions. In this regard, the study of the characteristics of the national education system in its historical evolution is of particular relevance and significance.