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Grekov I. The Religious Ideas and Methods of Work in Gurdzhiyev's Doctrine / annotation

Igor M. Grekov – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Ryazan State University, Ryazan, Russian Federation.

The purpose of this article is consideration of Gurdzhiyev`s interpretation of a concept spiritual work and of methods of this work. The author emphasizes that studying Gurdzhiyev`s theory of the person, the system of movements and meditation techniques, the interrelation of anthroposophy of "The Fourth Way" and esoteric forms of Christianity many of Gurdzhiyev`s followers were direct participants of the events of life in Gurdzhiyev`s groups not only theoretically, but also practically. The sphere of their interests led to the research of such problems as "internal and external human life", "mechanics of human behavior", "work", etc. The author claims that Gurdzhiyev`s system of "self-improvement" is of considerable interest in today`s world and demands judgment in the context of religious and philosophical knowledge. The article gives several problems that, according to G.I. Gurdzhiyev, an ordinary person should certainly face if he does not realize his own "mechanicalness." The author reveals the essence of "The Fourth Way" of G.I. Gurdzhiyev, speaks of his religious and philosophical origins, writes about the need for preliminary preparation before using this methodology. The article also refers to the "point of support" from which the transformation of the inner spiritual world of the person should begin, lists the specific methods that the person who wants to comprehend the doctrine of G.I. Gurdzhiyev about "The Fourth Way" should use. The author emphasizes the need for daily "work on himself," and also details the obstacles that can prevent the person from achieving the desired result. The author lists seven areas of "internal work on himself," which can be found in the works of G.I. Gurdzhiyev, justifies the advantage of the anthroposophical system of G.I. Gurdzhiyev in comparison with other philosophical directions.

Grekov I. The Concepts of Esotericism and Exoterism in the Context of Religious and Philosophical Doctrines of the 20th Century / annotation

Igor M. Grekov – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Ryazan State University, Ryazan, Russian Federation.

This article discusses the concepts of esotericism and exoterism in the context of religious and philosophical teachings of the XX century. The author focuses on theosophy of E. Blavatsky, A. Besant, the “living ethics” of the Roerichs, the anthroposophy of R. Steiner, the traditionalism of R. Genon, the doctrine of the “Rose of the World” by D. Andreev, and the Esoteric Christianity of B. Muravyov. Analyzing the works of N. Berdyaev, the author comes to the conclusion that for the thinker the mystical is the esoteric (inner) experience, a state that is practically not transmitted through concepts in contrast to theology, which is exoteric. The dominance of the new religiosity of N. A. Berdyaev connects with the formation of a synthetic religious teaching, the basis of which will be conscious mysticism, mystical realism, the opposite of common sense and justified by reason.

Igor M. Grekov, Olga A. Orlenko Christian Symbolism of Death in The Works of Representatives of Russian Religious Philosophy / annotation

Igor M. Grekov – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Ryazan State University, Ryazan, Russian Federation. Olga A. Orlenko – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The specificity and essential features of the Christian symbolism of death in Russian religious philosophers of the 19th-20th centuries are considered. It is noted that the low degree of elaboration of this topic creates the problem of translating Christian symbols in religious studies courses in modern Russian universities. The insufficient degree of development of such aspects of Christian symbolism as the establishment of the source of origin, the specificity of the image and the identification of the essential features of the Christian symbolism of death based on the study of the works of representatives of Russian religious philosophy is emphasized. The connection between the dual understanding of death that developed in Russian religious philosophy in the 19th-20th centuries and the specificity of the depiction of Christian symbols of death in religious art is revealed. The presence in Russian philosophy of both theological and psychological points of view on the interpretation of Christian symbols of death is noted. Based on the study of the works of L.P. Karsavin, N.A. Berdyaev, P.A. Florensky, S.N. Bulgakov, B.P. Vysheslavtsev, I.A. Ilyin and A.F. Losev, such Christian symbols of death as a cross, a solar eclipse, the head (skull) of Adam, a grain of wheat, an hourglass (time), a door, a flower are revealed. Examples of the embodiment of Christian symbols in religious art are given, it is concluded that the symbols of death in Russian religious philosophy are simultaneously symbols of resurrection.

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