ISSN 2414-1143

ANNOTATIONS

2019 N 1 – Berkovskiy V., Tronina L. Social and Historical Aspect of Interaction of Ethnic Culture and Personality in the Context of Public Development

Vyacheslav A. Berkovskiy – candidate of sociological sciences, associate professor. Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute, Stavropol, Russia.
Larisa A. Tronina – doctor of philosophy, professor. Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute, Stavropol, Russia.

In philosophy, cultural studies and pedagogy, the concept «culture» is considered as a phenomenon of social life, as a specific way of activity, including the process of creative individuality and uniqueness of the individual as a subject. Culture is reviewed as knowledge characterizing various historical epochs, ethnic groups, spheres of life activity, informing about the level of development of society, about the creative forces and abilities of a person, expressed in the types and forms of organization of life and activity of people, their mutual relations in society. There are two spheres of culture: the material and the spiritual. Material culture includes the objective results of human activities; spiritual culture combines those phenomena that are associated with consciousness, with the intellectual and emotional-psychological activity of man. Material and spiritual culture are in organic unity, integrating into a certain single type of culture, which is historically variable, at each new stage of its development, inherits all the most valuable created by the previous culture.The psychological aspect of the phenomenon of culture is interconnected with the problem of objective and subjective in becoming a person and is studied in connection with human life on the basis of the active assimilation of social forms of consciousness and behavior. Mental processes are considered in the context of the relationship of man with the world of culture.Culture is a syncretic phenomenon, a background for harmonious relations of man with nature, society and himself, the synthesis of material and spiritual values, a necessary condition for a harmonious relationship with the outside world and ensuring a civilized future. Culture, permeating the entire vital activity of society, is one of the components of the generalized criterion of a specific historical being. This is a specific way of life activity in the unity and diversity of historically developed forms.

Key words: culture, tradition, ethnos, personality, social and ethnic community

2019 N 1 – Magomedova M. The Ethnoculture of the North Caucasus as a Factor of Counteraction to Extremism among Youth

Madina Z. Magomedova – candidate of philosophical sciences, the leading scientific worker of the Regional Centre of Ethnopolitical sciences. Dagestan Scientific Center of Russian Academy of Sciences; associate professor of Department of Humanitarian Disciplines. Dagestan State University of National Economy, Makhachkala, Russian Federation.

The ethnoculture of the peoples of the North Caucasus is a part of the common cultural heritage of the peoples of Russia. It has a great social, cultural and political significance. In the context of globalization, it is important to preserve the national languages, traditions, folklore and originality of all North Caucasian peoples. It is also important to create the conditions for their free national self-affirmation and popularization of the ethnocultural heritage. The research of the problems of the traditional culture of the North Caucasian peoples is especially actualized by the leveling the significance of ethnocultural values in the Russian society. Preserving ethnoculture is also one of the important factors in countering extremist ideology in the North Caucasus, whose supporters, using the influence of religion in the region, are trying to distort the meaning of the ideas laid down in Islam, pulling them out of the context and treating them tendentiously. Conducting preventive measures among young people is much more productive than the elimination of the consequences of their extremist and terrorist activities. Radical religious organizations use misinformation, intimidation, manipulation of public consciousness, the substitution of concepts and facts extensively, use the Internet for recruiting of new members, including suicide bombers. In contrast to the activities of destructive forces in society, it is necessary to recall and revive the traditional values of the peoples of the North Caucasus, on which our ancestors relied: honoring their elders, mentoring young people, protecting women and children, respecting the traditions of their ancestors, etc. If this foundation, on which the whole social structure was built in the Caucasus, collapses then the younger generation will have nothing to build its future on.

Key words: ethnoculture, traditional culture, polyethnicity, polyconfessionality, the North Caucasus, ethnoconfessional tolerance, Islam, extremism, the youth

2019 N 1 – Petrova Yu., Shevkun Yu. Myths and Legends of the Black Sea Region

Yulia A. Petrova – candidate of philosophical sciences, associate professor of foreign languages for economic specialties, Rostov state university of economics. Rostov-on-Don, Russia.
Yulia S. Shevkun – student. Rostov state university of economics. Rostov-on-Don, Russia.

The first ideas of the Greeks about the Black Sea region and about the peoples, who inhabited it, had been formed long before the colonization thanks to the travelers and traders. The sea was rich in fish, and the coastal lands were rich in shipborne and construction timber, and in ironstone. However, sailing in the Black sea was dangerous for seamen. Because of the weak indentation of the coasts there were few convenient places for the harbors, there were almost no islands and peninsulas, so habitual for the Mediterranean Greeks. For a long time, the Northern borders remained unexplored.The sea, which was called "Póntos” by the Greeks, was considered to be a part of the Ocean, which surrounded the inhabited land by the bay. In the Ocean, according to the ancient ideas, was the entrance to the kingdom of the dead, so sailing on it was equal to the trip to the Hades. In the same place, in the Ocean, where chaos reigned, it was possible to meet the “blessed islands”, where the souls of the heroes lived. Such ideas, as well as the difficulties of navigation had been preventing the development of the shores of the Black Sea for a long time and had affected the very name of the sea, the Greek name "ΠόντοςἌξεινοςPóntosÁxeinos", “Inhospitable Sea”. Later, during the period of colonization, it would be called “ΕὔξεινοςΠόντοςEúxeinosPóntos”, "Hospitable Sea".The information about the Black Sea coast, colored by fiction, has been preserved in myths, legends and poems.

Key words: Black Sea Region, myths, legends, ancient historians, the Republic of Crimea

2019 N 1 – Goncharov V., Kolosova O. The Cultural and Historical Analysis of Slavic Religion in the Context of the Ethno-graphic Research

Vadim N. Goncharov – doctor of philosophical sciences, associate professor. North Caucasian Federal University, Stavropol, Russia.
Olga Iu. Kolosova – doctor of philosophical sciences, associate professor. Krasnodar University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Stavropol branch.

It is proved in this article that ethnographic researches represent one of the components of scientific cultural and historical research of social development. According to the authors, not only cultural artifacts but also many other ones are infused with religious attitude and more with associations of religious character. All these artifacts reflect ideological aspects of consciousness formation, the system of behavior and relationship of people. The tradition force, selectivity and the normalizing nature of national culture allowed remaining some ancient plots so that they can be a source of replenishment of data on pre-Christian religious views of the Slavs.Understanding the initial semantics of these plots and disclosing their value are possible only with attraction of comparative data on beliefs and ceremonies, with application of various historical evidences and the most ancient historical monuments. All this can be historically comprehended only taking into account the ancient pagan world outlook. The Slavic paganism is a part of the huge universal complex including the most ancient beliefs, ceremonies and mythology that served as a component of the latest world religions. The church treated paganism as an antithesis to Christianity that has nothing in common with the true situation, with science about religion. Historians, religion scholars, archeologists and ethnographers proved that the Christian church, fighting against local cults, nevertheless, absorbed them and included in its dogma, agreeing with insufficient integrity and logic of the turning-out synthesis. The characteristic of religion in general is that with emergence of new representations the old ones do not disappear, and continue to exist along with new even if contradict them.

Key words: culture, belief, pagan cults, religion, religious consciousness, society

2019 N 1 – Ivushkina E., Dashkova E. Social and Cultural Activities of the Regions atthe Present Stage: Programme Goal Method

Elena B. Ivushkina – doctor of philosophy, professor at the Department of Tourism and Hospitality Industry. Chechen State University, Grozny, Chechen Republic, Russia.
Elena V. Dashkova – candidate of philosophical sciences, associate professor, head of the department of Tourism and Hospitality Industry. Chechen State University, Grozny, Chechen Republic, Russia.

The relevance of the article is due to the increasing attention paid to the formation of the national dignity of the peoples of the Russian Federation. Strengthening the authority of Russia is based on the awareness of the cultural self-identity of the peoples of the country. Overcoming the idealization of Western stereotypes of life is associated with an appeal to the spiritual and moral heritage of Russia. This heritage has been preserved in the traditions and folklore of the peoples of the Russian Federation. It is emphasized that modern forms of culture without broadcasting historical and social experience, without resorting to the national environment, change their character, their social carrier, their functions in culture, and even their artistic appearance. In order for the original culture of the people to continue to exist, it is necessary to take into account the traditional experience of national communities. The possibilities of an ethno-social society, which preserves the cultural heritage of the ancestors, creates a modern view on traditional culture, reproduces and transfers it to subsequent generations. The historical-cultural heritage is analyzed on the basis of the richest experience of previous generations, which allows modern man to identify himself in the modern world. Socio-cultural activity remains an integral part of the culture of modern society. It is of particular importance in the education of the young generation, the formation of civilian qualities, respect for the cultural heritage of their people, and their social memory. The current trends in the development of social and cultural activities are highlighted. Characteristics are given and the main categories of intangible cultural heritage are identified, the possibilities of using it in educating an individual by means of cultural institutions of regions of the Russian Federation.

Key words: socio-cultural activities, cultural heritage, folk culture, social memory

2019 N 1 – Hiyasova S., Mustafaeva M., Mustafaev F. Traditions and Customs of the Peoples of Dagestan (Historical and Cultural Analysis of Funeral Rites)

Sarat G. Hiyasova – candidate of pedagogic sciences, associate professor. Dagestan State Pedagogical University, Makhachkala, Russia.
Maida G. Mustafaeva – doctor of philosophy, professor. Dagestan State Pedagogical University, Makhachkala, Russia.
Farid M. Mustafaev – doctor of philosophy, associate professor. Dagestan State Pedagogical University, Makhachkala, Russia.

The article is devoted to a comprehensive historical and cultural research of funeral rites as an important part of traditional Dagestan culture. The funeral rites of the peoples of Dagestan are the most well established and “consecrated” by the ancient traditions cycle of actions, the violation of which has met and still meets with strong condemnation from public opinion. It reflects the moral attitudes developed by a long experience of national life. Despite the deeply tragic nature of the process itself, there is a clear regulation of ritual activities, there are elements of theatricality. The entire cycle of the early funeral rites of the people of Dagestan is analyzed, which includes prefuneral customs and rituals, funerals themselves and rites and customs associated with funerals. A comparative characteristic with the funeral rite at the present stage is also carried out; its current and obsolete elements are indicated. The authors come to the conclusion that the funeral ritual of the Dagestan peoples was and remains multi-layered, despite the greatest Islamization and regulation by the clergy of many moments of the funeral cycle. It is shown that many elements of the former pagan rituals have been preserved and reflected in the funeral rites, although in a somewhat transformed and modified form.

Key words: traditions, customs, ceremonies, culture, Dagestan, funeral

2019 N 1 – Kuleshin M., Leonova N., Nemashkalov P. Historical Consciousness as a Part of National Consciousness: to the Problem Statement of the Research

Maxim G. Kuleshin – candidate of historical sciences, associate professor. State Educational Government-Financed Institution of Higher Education "Stavropol state teacher`s institute", Stavropol, Russia.
Natalya A. Leonova – candidate of historical sciences, associate professor. State Educational Government-Financed Institution of Higher Education "Stavropol state teacher`s institute", Stavropol, Russia.
Pavel G. Nemashkalov – candidate of historical sciences, associate professor. State Educational Government-Financed Institution of Higher Education "Stavropol state teacher`s institute", Stavropol, Russia.

It is known that each new generation addresses the past not only for the purpose of un-derstanding of connections with the past, but also because of the present interests. At any historical stage, there is time when historical figures or events are of great interest. It is noted that most of the peoples pay special attention to the past that obviously coincides with the growth of national consciousness. It has been recently occurred that the attention to the historical past is connected with the judgment of modern realization of the principles of social development. Therefore, from the scientific and practical point of view it makes sense to consider the question about the ratio of historical and national consciousness of the folk. The important place is taken here by the historical memory in the system of historical conscious-ness. Ethno-social researches allow giving the real vision of the situation in the life of the folk. The vision of the historical past is one of the components of national consciousness if to understand it widely not only as identification of people on the ground of nationality, but also as an image of the folk in general, that is the vision of features of the folk, its culture, past and present and the national interests connected with it. At the same time visions, knowledge of people of this or that community about their past, including mythological knowledge, scientifically got historical data have not been the historical consciousness yet. It is possible to call such knowledge and visions the historical memory. It is an indispensable part of culture in which continuity stabilizes the ethnos. The historical memory is a peculiar spiritual potential of the folk. It can be used, and it is really used sometimes for the benefit of all folk and sometimes of separate social groups.

Key words: historical memory, national interests, social interests, historical knowledge, culture, personality, consciousness

2019 N 1 – Sklyarova E., Kamalova O. Features of the Formation of the British-Turkish Diplomacy of the Second Half of the XIX Century

Elena K. Sklyarova – candidate of historical sciences, associate professor. Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia.
Olga N. Kamalova – candidate of philosophical sciences, associate professor. Rostov State Medical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russia.

The article considers features of the formation of the British-Turkish diplomatic relations during the Victorian time. The diplomats and figures of the public health service who had the official and unofficial status during the Crimean War (1853 – 1856) and the Russian-Turkish War (1877 – 1878) defined the significant role in their development. Being engaged in parliamentary and diplomatic activity Austen Henry Layard was elected the lord-rector of the University of Aberdeen, he worked in the British Foreign Office, and he was appointed the first member of the commission of public works, which dealt with the issues of public health service. Considering his versatile abilities, periodic stay in Constantinople, knowledge of traditions of the Ottoman Empire he was appointed the ambassador of Great Britain in Constantinople. Before him, the British ambassador in Turkey the lord Stratford Canning took the influential position in Constantinople. This lord had a considerable impact on the formation of the Anglo-Turkish and Russian-Turkish relations. All the information obtained from H. Layard was transferred by the lord Stratford Canning in his reports about the situation in the Ottoman Empire to the British Foreign Minister. In this period in Constantinople there was a race for power between the Reform party, Sultan and Rashchid Pasha`s environment, various political groups. Turkey was in difficult economic and social situation, which was worsened by the influx of refugees and by the national and religious contradictions. The population movement defined the need of social reforms, new sanitary problems of army and the cities of empires. The British parliament carefully monitored the development of the Russian-Turkish relations on the eve of the Crimean War. The government of Britain was interested in disruption of the political relations between Russia and Turkey, and in the weakening of military-political power of the Russian Empire. The British press warmed up the negative attitude of Great Britain to Russia. Insanitary conditions of soldiers in the Crimea and Turkey became the subject of the parliamentary reports, having defined the formation of medical diplomacy. Successful maneuvering of the British government for the purpose of realization of their own military-political ambitions became the feature of the Anglo-Turkish relations of the Victorian time. London successfully used consequences of the Crimean War, knowledge and experience of the non-staff diplomats, their anti-Russians and pro-Turkish sentiments, the corresponding publications of the press for the weakening of the Russian Empire and the expansion of its own possession at the expense of Turkey.

Key words: diplomacy, empire, Constantinople, the Ottoman Empire, Great Britain, the Russian Empire, Henry Layard, Florence Nightingale, the Crimean War

2019 N 2 – Goncharov V., Kolosova O. Social-philosophical aspect of research on the ethnocultural integrity of a person

Vadim N. Goncharov – PhD of philosophy, professor of philosophy dpt. Institute of the Humanities of North-Caucasus federal university, Stavropol, Russian Federation.
Olga Y. Kolosova – PhD, professor, Krasnodar university of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russian Federation, Stavropol, Russian Federation.

The idea of the perfect person, appearing as a universal idea about harmony with nature and the need to adapt to it and transforming it, puts a person on a new level of harmony. The upbringing of a perfect person reflects the level of national self-consciousness and undergoes a constant evolution under the influence of social conditions. The people were always aware of the universal goals of upbringing, had their ideal of a perfect person and, in their upbringing practice, sought to achieve this goal.
For a person as an ethnocultural integrity, it is important to be introduced to the ethnocultural heritage, inculturation. Comprehending the phenomenology of culture, mastering the ethnocultural phenomenon, a person becomes an heir of culture, is formed as an integral ethnocultural personality –a community unit with characteristics of ethnic mentality, associated with the history of ethnos, ethnic culture, capable of ethnic reproduction of the world. Specificity of culture is determined by the peculiarities of the ethnocultural personality. The uniqueness consists, first of all, in the inimitable combination of the elements common to all ethnic groups, in the combination of the system of relations and values. As an individual, personality is identical with social norms, effective in relation to expected social roles. This is the outward correspondence of man to the ethnic ideal of the perfect man. Ethnicity is a real, structurally rich and complex connection of an individual with society, including the socio-economic, territorial, day-to-day, socio-political, linguistic, spiritual and socio-psychological aspects and reflects a certain side of human nature, much deeper, external in relation to consciousness and psychology, by which is understood the form of higher nervous activity.

Key words: culture, ethnos, ethnic consciousness, ethnic identity, multiethnic society, social model

2019 N 2 – Fedotova P. Cultural and linguistic unity of the peoples of Dagestan as a factor of successful inter-cultural communication

Polina Y. Fedotova – acting rector, candidate of sociological sciences. Dagestan state pedagogical university. Makhachkala, Dagestan Republic, Russian Federation.

The factors that have a direct impact on the positive intercultural dialogue of the peoples of Dagestan are analyzed. Being a multinational republic, Dagestan has a rather high degree of ethnocultural tolerance. In the historical context in Dagestan, developed the fundamental ideas of commonality and identity, including linguistic. In addition, over the long-term cohabitation and interaction of cultures among the peoples of Dagestan, numerous common elements have emerged in material culture, economic structure, in clothing, dishes and, of course, in traditions and customs. It is shown that in matters of constructive intercultural dialogue, it is of great importance to observe the equality of all represented ethnic groups. The peoples of Dagestan (Avars, Dargins, Laks, Kumyks, etc.) have a very similar psychological image, which largely contributes to the successful communication of ethnic groups and understanding of each other as a whole. This factor determines the similarity in attitude, which can also be attributed to the advantages of positive intercultural dialogue. One of the conditions for the prevention of interethnic tension, the increase of interethnic understanding between representatives of different cultures is minimization of negative and actualization of the existing positive ethnic stereotypes.

Key words: culture, ethnos, communication, peoples, Dagestan, stereotype

2019 N 2 – Olenich T., Oreshin A. Neo-paganism: the latent threat or influence of “soft power” on the Russian youth

Tamara S. Olenich – PhD of philosophy, professor. Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Alexander V. Oreshin – 3d year master`s degree course "Theology" of the DSTU, senior priest of the Serafimovskiy Temple, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

This study considers the neo-pagan worldview as a factor influencing certain social strata with the aim of forming a specific set of specific socio-cultural, political, and historical-cultural representations. The main social group, to which the activities of neo-pagans are directed, is youth. In the course of a survey conducted by questioning 360 respondents in 2019 in the cities of Shakhty and Rostov-on-Don in order to determine the religious and cultural identity of survey participants. It was proved that the role of Orthodox moral education in the formation of national-cultural identity continues to be decisive for the majority of believing youth. More than half of the survey participants are inclined to believe that paganism cannot be recognized as a traditional religion. It is shown that the adoption of the National Security Act creates opportunities to limit the influence of destructive cults on the Russian youth.

Key words: neo-paganism, orthodoxy, national security, youth

2019 N 2 – Shcherbakova T., Loseva I., Misirov D., Zhitnaya I. Social competence and adaptation of the student in the polycultural educational system of higher education institution (on the material of the North Caucasus region)

Tat`iana N. Shcherbakova – PhD of psychological sciences, professor. State budgetary institution of additional professional education of the Rostov region “Rostov institute of professional development and professional retraining of educators”. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Irina I. Loseva – candidate of pedagogical sciences, associate professor. Southern Federal University. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Dinamutdin N. Misirov – candidate of psychological sciences, associate professor. Southern Federal University. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Inna V. Zhitnaya – candidate of pedagogical sciences, associate professor. Southern Federal University. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The main vectors of influence of the level of development of social competence of the student on the formation of cultural safety and their adaptation in polycultural educational system of modern higher education institution are revealed in the article. Components of social competence, its functions in realization of behavior of the student in the polycultural environment are revealed and described. Resources and risks of social competence in the formation of a safety culture among students are shown. The specifics of action of an individual system of subjective control as a factor affecting success of adaptation of students in multiple-valued situations of social interaction are described. The results of studying of content of ideas of students of higher education institutions of the North Caucasus region about the role of social competence as a factor of cultural safety, its components and about the motives of its development are presented. The features of expressiveness of communicative self-checking, the preferred strategies of behavior in the conflict and the level of development of subjective control among students as factors causing the features of adaptation of students in the polycultural educational environment are shown.

Key words: social competence, adaptation of the student, cultural safety, interpersonal interaction, subjective control, polycultural environment, culture of safety, educational system of higher education institution

2019 N 2 – Tskvitariia T. The problem of integration of students in multicultural educational space of medical university

Tatyana A. Tskvitariia – associate professor of pedagogics Faculty of professional development and professional retraining of experts Rostov State Medical University, candidate of pedagogic sciences, associate professor, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

In the context of globalization, sustainable formation and functioning of a multicultural society, we consider the problem of the integration of students into the university multicultural educational space as relevant. The article discusses the peculiarities of psychological adaptation of foreign citizens into the multicultural environment of a unified educational space of the university, the possibility of their mutual integration. The questions about the need to adapt the educational system in order to form the knowledge, competencies, skills and behavioral models necessary for an innovative society and innovative economy and about the formation of a system of continuous education in a multicultural educational environment are raised. Within the framework of the competence paradigm, the competences of a modern person are highlighted, which reflect the level of professional and general culture, practical experience and which contribute to the successful integration of the individual in terms of intercultural communication into the educative and educational space of the university. The leading methodological principle of the educational process organization is also highlighted. It is the reliance on multicultural dialogue and the selection of the ethnocultural component in education. In accordance with this, special requirements are also imposed on the teacher. One of these requirements is cultural competence and the ability of the teacher to smooth out conflicts based on the knowledge of the students` national mentality, manifestations of tolerant attitude towards the students. Thus, the successful integration of students into the multicultural educational space of the university becomes possible when an educative and educational environment at the university with multi-level pedagogical support and humanistic pedagogy approaches implementation are created.

Key words: educational space, competence approach, competence, psychological adaptation, multicultural educational space

2019 N 2 – Dzhioev A. Population employment as a development factor of the socio-demographic processes in the Northern Caucasus regions of Russia

Alexander V. Dzhioev – Research Associate, Laboratory of Applied Sociology and Conflict ology, Vladikavkaz Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladikavkaz, Russian Federation.

The article examines the factors of the socio-demographic processes formation in the republics of the North Caucasus Federal District (NCFD) of the Russian Federation and identifies a significant demographic reserve of the macroregion. It is shown that the weak dynamics of supply in the labor market as a whole negatively affects the use of labor and the quality parameters of the migration flow, leading to the preservation of high tensions in the labor market and general unemployment. A number of proposals have been formulated for the growth of dynamic employment in the subjects of the NCFD. Moreover, the persistence of high unemployment is fraught with high social threats and conflict potential. For employment growth in the subjects of the NCFD, a number of proposals have been formulated: an increase in self-employment, which is possible, for example, in the framework of federal programs and the state program «Development of the NCFD», especially federal target programs; the creation of the all-zone tourist and recreational complexes “Arkhyz”, “Veduchi” and “Elbrus-Bezengi”, as well as the creation of a medical cluster in the Caucasian Mineral Waters; active development of small business support programs in the service sector, where at the beginning of 2019 more than half of the working population of the NCFD is actually employed, developing a tourism and recreation cluster in the NCFD, organization and implementation of the NCFD interregional youth employment programs by creating special youth employment centers that perform information, marketing, organizational, economic, educational, and financial and administrative functions in order to fully promote employment of the most initiative and motivated part of the population of the NCFD in the labor-poor regions of Russia.

Key words: North Caucasus Federal District, factors of population dynamics, natural population growth, migration, em-ployment and unemployment dynamics, demand on the labor market

2019 N 2 – Evstropov V., Trushkova E., Egorova Yu. General characteristic of modern ecology structure

Vladimir M. Evstropov – PhD of medicine, associate professor, professor of "Safety of Engineering Procedures and Productions" department. Don State Technical University. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Ekaterina A. Trushkova – candidate of technical sciences, associate professor. "Safety of Engineering Procedures and Productions" department. Don State Technical University. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Yulia N. Egorova – master`s student. "Safety of Engineering Procedures and Productions" department. Don State Technical University. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

Initially ecology was understood by E. Haeckel as a general science about the relations of organisms with the environment. Subsequently the definition of ecology as a science about the relations of organisms or groups of organisms to the environment surrounding them became traditional. Modern ecology is closely connected not only with various biological disciplines but also with geography, chemistry, geology, i.e. it became the cross-disciplinary science. Modern ecology is subdivided into six directions. Bioecology is characterized as classical ecology, and global ecology is characterized as geographical ecology. The prerogative of regional ecology is the studying of specific features of the specific region. Applied ecology includes engineering, nature protection, construction, radiation, agricultural ecology, etc. Physiological ecology, ecotoxicology, ecoparasitology, production ecology (sanitary ecology), adaptation ecology, etc. are related to the ecology of person. Social ecology studies ecological features of interaction of society with the nature. Some researchers consider modern science ecology, according to ecological biocentrism as a branching of biological science representing, according to them, the system of sciences. There is also a compromise point of view according to which ecology considers the developed conditions of dwelling of the person and other organisms (the biological direction), and hygiene studies influence of the habitat on human health (the medical direction). According to our opinion, the ecology of the person, in particular its section "sanitary ecology" can be a link between ecology and hygiene. We believe that in the researches within this section of ecology it is possible to apply medical and biological approaches and indicators. According to the physical and ecological concept of evolution of ecosystems the researchers allow prebiological evolutionary change of these systems from preecosystems to primitive ecosystems. The ecology as an industry of knowledge, evolves in the process of learning of ecosystems in the aspect of a scientific picture of the World from the simplest physical and ecological concept of evolution of ecosystems to the globalization of ecology in the form of cross-disciplinary area of knowledge about the device and functioning of multilevel systems in nature and society in their interrelation.

Key words: ecology, structure of ecology, directions of ecology, ecological systems

2019 N 2 – Uminskaya M., Kuzminov V., Salganov A., Klyueva N. Person in a city: rational time distribution and healthy feeding

Marina B. Uminskaya – senior lecturer of the department of Physical Education, Institute for Food Technologies and Design – Branch of the State Budget Higher Education Institution “Nizhny Novgorod State Engineer and Economic University”, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation.
Vladislav G. Kuzminov – candidate of philosophy, associate professor. Institute for Food Technologies and Design – Branch of the State Budget Higher Education Institution “Nizhny Novgorod State Engineer and Economic University”, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation.
Artem A. Salganov – student, Institute for Food Technologies and Design – Branch of the State Budget Higher Education Institution “Nizhny Novgorod State Engineer and Economic University”, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation.
Nadezhda A. Klyueva – student, Institute for Food Technologies and Design – Branch of the State Budget Higher Education Institution “Nizhny Novgorod State Engineer and Economic University”, Nizhny Novgorod, Russian Federation.

The present-day humanity suffers numerous health problems because of improper feeding, incorrect time distribution, neglecting of sports. The given article dwells upon necessity of overcoming modern civilizational deceases with the help of rational and right feeding, active way of life, and correct distribution of time during a day.

Key words: health, proper diet, “diseases of civilization”, daily regimen, activity, inertness, employment

2019 N 2 – Kleshchenkov A., Filatova T. Microplastic is a problem of planetary scale

Alexey V. Kleshchenkov – leading scientific worker, candidate of geographical sciences. Federal state budgetary institution of science "Federal research center the Southern scientific center of the Russian Academy of Sciences", Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Tatyana B. Filatova – research scientist. Federal state budgetary institution of science "Federal research center the Southern scientific center of the Russian Academy of Sciences", Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The problem of the World Ocean pollution with microplastic is considered in this article. Nowadays this problem is recognized as the accruing problem of planetary scale, but it is insufficiently highlighted in the domestic scientific press. The processes leading to the formation of microplastic are described, the short review of researches of content of micro-plastic in the marine environment and its impacts on the environment is submitted.
Plastic is one of the most demanded materials and because of its durability, lightness and longevity in combination with low prime cost it is used practically in all fields of industry. At the same time a huge part of plastic production is a share of disposable products or products with a short life length. The first mentions about plastic garbage in reservoirs, about harmful and poorly studied influence of microplastic on representatives of biota are met in the published literature since the beginning of the 1970th years. At first, the articles on this subject drew the minimum attention of scientific community, but in the next decades, thanks to accumulation of data on environmental impacts of pollution of the World Ocean with microplastic, this subject arrests a sustained research interest.
It was revealed that a number of organisms, both vertebrata and invertebrates, absorb microplastic. Microparticles of plastic have a wide range of dimensional groups and low density; therefore, a lot of live organisms perceive them as a source of food. As plastic does not decay by their enzymatic system, its ingestion poses a threat for the organisms and can lead to their death. Researches show that for the last forty years the pollution of the World Ocean with plastic reached such scales that this material began to get not only into the food of sea inhabitants, but also into the food of people.
The problem of the sea garbage acquires special relevance among a number of the environmental problems caused by the consumer orientation of exploitation of the environ-ment. Russia is not an exception. Researches of content of microplastic in the marine environment are conducted in the Russian Federation since 2005 in the South of the Far East, in the water areas of the Amur, Ussuriysk gulfs and Peter the Great Bay (the Sea of Japan), in the Baltic Sea and on Baikal. However, the organization of the solution of the problem of the sea garbage and processing of plastic in Russia is at the formation stage.

Key words: plastic garbage, microplastic, monitoring, pollution, marine environment, toxic influence

2019 N 2 – Evstropov V. Geoecology and its medical aspects

Vladimir M. Evstropov – PhD of medicine, associate professor. Professor of "Safety of Engineering Procedures and Productions" department. Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The geoecology is considered as a new scientific direction in natural sciences. In turn, the geoecology, in view of its cross-disciplinary character includes, according to C.Troll, various aspects: geocomplex, geosystem, equally-componential, ecosystemic and biocentric. In view of increase of the person`s role in technical transformation of biosphere, and as a result of developing of diseases of civilization and other ecopathology of the person, the research of medical aspects of geoecology has become relevant. When studying the connection between human activity, technogenic constructions and geological environment, it is necessary to take into account that in the system "the person, the technogenic construction and the geological environment" it is important to pay attention to the mechanisms and the consequences of impact on the person of the dangerous striking factors of dangerous natural (geological) processes. As the geoecology is also considered as a synthesis of "vertical" (system biology) and of "horizontal" approaches, nowadays, even taking into account the biological component of the person as biosocial beings, the medical ecology also can apply for the certain "geoecological" attention. When examining, in the system aspect, geoecology as a science, it is possible to note the criteria of expediency and of the level of the system organization as backbone. From the expediency positions it is necessary to reflect a medical and biological component in the structure of geoecology that will expand the section of natural geoecology and will allow to consider the vertical approach more widely than within the system biology. The issues of the influence on the person of chemical pollution, researches of natural and focal infectious diseases, studying of features of distribution of noncontagious pathological changes among people, accounting of dynamics of the migration processes caused by the geoecological reasons, etc. belong to the problems of medical geoecology.
Characteristic of the environment as a sphere of the activity of people causes the necessity of purposeful activity in the solution of local, regional, global geoenvironmental problems. While analyzing some local (regional) geoenvironmental problems of the Russian seaside territory of the Black Sea region influencing the level of life support and health of the population it is noted: 1) near Novorossiysk the distribution of pollution of H2 S, NO2, NO and CO happens in the air way while the pollution by oil products covers ground waters of the area and also sea water of the Novorossiysk bay. In the territory of the Republic of Crimea there is a risk of chemical environmental pollution in the case of accidents at the chemical enterprises, producing iodine, bromine organic compounds, compounds of manganese and magnesium, agents of fire retarders, mineral fertilizers, sulfuric acid, aluminum sulfate, sodium water glass, etc. 2) in the Crimea the spread of various natural and focal infections of bacterial, virus and rickettsial genesis is possible.

Key words: geoecology, medical ecology, countries of the Black Sea region, environmental pollution

Don State Technical University
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Moldavian association of international law
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