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Filatova T., Aleshina E., Kleschenkov A. Taganrog bay in winter: hydrochemical components distribution / annotation

Filatova Tatyana – scientific worker. Southern scientific center of Russian Academy of Science. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Aleshina Elena – engineer-researcher. Southern scientific center of Russian Academy of Science. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Kleschenkov Alexey – candidate of geology, head of the department. Southern scientific center of Russian Academy of Science. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

Information about Taganrog bay hydrochemical regime in winter period has irregular character and generally concerns water chemistry research. In the period of ice formation, when the wind has no dominant influence, when the activity of planktonic community decreases, chemical substances transformation processes slow down, river runoff decreases, ice cover restricts oxygen income into water, not only alteration of biogenic matters hydrochemical fields represents a special interest, but also their distribution in snowpack, in ice and in subglacial water. In winter 2006, 2007, 2014, 2015 and 2016 the South scientific centre RAS and Institute of arid zone SSC RAS conducted hydrochemical researches in Don river estuary and in the littoral part of Taganrog bay, in the process of which the probes of snow, ice and subglacial water were analyzed and selected to determine nitrites, nitrates, ammonia nitrogen, attenuated nitrogen, gross nitrogen, phosphates, attenuated phosphorus, gross phosphorus, silicon, dissolved substances, suspended substances, heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Pb, Mn, Cr). Selection of snow ice and subglacial water probes and their analysis were conducted according to standard methods, recommended for using under ocean hydrochemical researches. In December 2006 nitrites content in the water probes was changed within the interval 5–4, nitrates 55–810, phosphates 23–163 mgk/l, the general admixtures content varied within the range 852–3983 mg/l. In the beginning of February 2007 nitrites and nitrates in the subglacial water were three times more, phosphates – 10 times, dissolved substances – 9 times more, than in the ice. In comparison with snow in subglacial water phosphates were 23 times more, dissolved substances –in 47 times more. Suspended substances in the water probes were the same as in the snow probes, but in the ice probes – 1,4 times more than in the subglacial water probes. In the end of 2007 nitrites in the subglacial water were 1,3 times more, nitrates – 7,5 times more, phosphates – 4 times more, dissolved substances – 22 times more than in the ice. In the same time suspended substances content in water was the same, as in the ice probes. Content determination of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Pb, Mn, Cr) in the probes of snow and ice showed that ferrum, cuprum and manganese were 2 times more in snow than in ice. Content of lead and chrome in snow was significantly more in 1,2 and 1,4 times than in ice. Thus, during researches conduction concentration of nitrites, nitrates, phosphates and the admixtures general content were maximum in the subglacial water. Minimum quantity of nitrites and nitrates were detected in the probes of ice, the minimum concentration of phosphates, attenuated and suspended substances – in the probes of snow. In February 2014 concentration of nitrites in subglacial water varied within the limits 10,0–20,0, nitrates –143,0–483,0, phosphates – 12,0–47,0 mgk/l. In February 2015 content of nitrites in subglacial water was changed within the range 4,0–24,0, nitrates – 1110,0–3090,0, phosphates – 3,0–77,0 mgk/l. In February 2016 ammonium ions content in subglacial water was changed within the interval 60–140,0, nitrites –15,0–24,0, nitrates –290,0–1120,0, gross nitrogen 910,0–2310,0, phosphates –5,0–54,0, gross phosphorus 98,0–221,0, silicon 2100,0–7000,0 mgk/l. Decrease of amplitude concentrations contraction for all biogenic matters according to the distance from esturial seashore and river runoff influence decrease is characterized for all biogenic matters. Realization of systematic hydrochemical observations during the whole year and study of hydrochemical components distribution in snow, ice and subglacial water have a great theoretical and practical significance during the forecasting of hydrochemical regime and water quality of water objects.

Key words: Taganrog bay, winter period, hydrochemic regime, biogenic elements, salty water, ice.

Varenik A., Filatova T., Kleschenkov A. Comparative analysis of biogenic elements in atmospherical condensation of Black sea Crimean coast and Rostov-on-Don in spring-summer period of 2016 / annotation

Alla V. Varenik – Marine hydrophysical institute of RAS. Sevastopol, Russian Federation.
Tatyana B. Filatova – scientific worker. Southern scientific center of Russian Academy of Science. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Alexey V. Kleschenkov – candidate of geology, head of the department. Southern scientific center of Russian Academy of Science. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

Human activity significantly affects the substances content in the atmosphere, their natural cycles and budget. The chemical composition of atmospherical condensation is one of the main characteristics of atmospheric air pollution level. But in addition they also serve as a significant source of various substances inflow in maritime and continental ecosystems, capable to change their ecological state. Mainly this fact determines the urgency of studying the chemical composition of atmospheric precipitation.
It is presented a comparative content characteristic of basic biogenic elements (inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus) in the atmospherical condensation in the background and urbanized areas on the Black Sea coast (v. Katsiveli and Sevastopol) and in the Rostov-on-Don region in May-September 2016. The difference of concentrations in condensations of background and urbanized regions is considered, the reasons of this difference are analyzed. The possible influence of condensations on the geological substateis estimated. It is shown that ammoniacal and nitrate were the basic forms of nitrogen in the atmospherical condensations of all observation points. In Rostov-on-Don, the content of ammonium was significantly higher than the content of nitrates, which can be explained by the entry of this element into the atmosphere from rice checks, located near the sampling site. The concentration of inorganic phosphorus in the atmospherical condensations of Rostov-on-Don exceeded the concentration in the Crimean coast region in 5 times, which may be connected with the influence of rice checks and a grain terminal near the sampling stations, as well as the introduction of phosphates into the atmosphere by winds blowing in the direction from the Salsky steppes.

Filatova T., Kleschenkov A., Aleshina E., Soiyer V. Hydrological and hydrochemical characteristics of lake Manych-Gudilo water / annotation

Tatyana B. Filatova – scientific worker. Southern scientific center of Russian Academy of Science. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Alexey V. Kleschenkov – candidate of geology, head of the department. Southern scientific center of Russian Academy of Science. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Elena G. Aleshina – Federal Research Center of the Southern Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Vyacheslav G. Soiyer – candidate of chemical studies. Federal Research Center of the Southern Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

Scientific research works on studying the processes taking place in the Manych reservoirs are aimed not only at obtaining new scientific knowledge, but also assessing the impact of these changes on the species diversity dynamics and the structural and functional organization of communities of hydrobionts and semiaquatic fauna, as well as developing measures for optimization of water-salt balance, ecological conditions of the Manych Cascade reservoirs bioresources conservation and reproduction. Information on the current mineralization and the ionic composition state of the Proletarian Reservoir waters is important to understand their origin, the possibility of using them for economic purposes, assessing their transformation, and their influence on the environment and biota. It was found that the total mineralization in the surveyed water area in the period of autumn observations remains at a high level (45 g / l), as in 2010 and 2011. (42.7 and 42.6 respectively). The waters at most stations were attributed to brines, the most western station - to the waters of high salinity. Class of waters is chloride, sodium group, type II. The observed lateral gradient of salinity in the surveyed section of the Proletarian Reservoir is the process of mixing waters with different salinity. The data obtained from expeditionary studies served as the basis for a database on the Proletarian Reservoir (Lake Manych-Gudilo) ecosystem state.

Kreneva K., Filatova T., Kleschenkov A., Korshun A. Change of hydrogen-hydrochemical conditions of Azov sea Taganrog gulf and their influence on microzoplankton in winter period / annotation

Katerina V. Kreneva – candidate of biological studies. Federal Research Center of the Southern Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Rostov-on-Don, Russia. Federation.
Tatyana B. Filatova – scientific worker. Southern scientific center of Russian Academy of Science. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Alexey V. Kleschenkov – candidate of geology, head of the department. Southern scientific center of Russian Academy of Science. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Anna M. Korshun – candidate of geographical studies, assistant professor. North Caucasian branch of the Moscow technical university of communications and Informatics. Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

An attempt is made to generalize the hydrochemical and hydrobiological results, obtained by the Southern Scientific Center of RAS and the Institute of Arid Zones of the SSC RAS in the study of the Taganrog Gulf waters in the winter of 2006-2017, and the distribution of hydrochemical components in snow, ice and under-ice water, the long-term changes in the salinity of the Taganrog Gulf are traced in detail according to two points of the observation, which is of theoretical and practical importance in predicting the hydrochemical regime, possible structural changes in the hydrobiocenosis and water quality of the water bodies. The stations most widely provided with data on the content of nutrients (nitrites, nitrates, ammonium nitrogen, dissolved nitrogen, nitrogen, phosphate, dissolved phosphorus, phosphorus, silicic acid) were compared. It is concluded that an increase in the salinity of the Azov Sea waters causes a steady trend of a decrease in the level of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the Taganrog Gulf microzooplankton community, changes are observed in the dominant complex of ciliatocenosis species. The decrease in the species richness of microzooplankton is mainly due to freshwater and marine species. This process is probably associated with a negative effect of salinity on the primary production of organic matter and is part of a cycle of long-period fluctuations in salinity of the Azov Sea.

Kleshchenkov A., Filatova T. Microplastic Is a Problem of Planetary Scale / annotation

Alexey V. Kleshchenkov – leading scientific worker, candidate of geographical sciences. Federal state budgetary institution of science "Federal research center the Southern scientific center of the Russian Academy of Sciences", Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Tatyana B. Filatova – research scientist. Federal state budgetary institution of science "Federal research center the Southern scientific center of the Russian Academy of Sciences", Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

The problem of the World Ocean pollution with microplastic is considered in this article. Nowadays this problem is recognized as the accruing problem of planetary scale, but it is insufficiently highlighted in the domestic scientific press. The processes leading to the formation of microplastic are described, the short review of researches of content of micro-plastic in the marine environment and its impacts on the environment is submitted.
Plastic is one of the most demanded materials and because of its durability, lightness and longevity in combination with low prime cost it is used practically in all fields of industry. At the same time a huge part of plastic production is a share of disposable products or products with a short life length. The first mentions about plastic garbage in reservoirs, about harmful and poorly studied influence of microplastic on representatives of biota are met in the published literature since the beginning of the 1970th years. At first, the articles on this subject drew the minimum attention of scientific community, but in the next decades, thanks to accumulation of data on environmental impacts of pollution of the World Ocean with microplastic, this subject arrests a sustained research interest.
It was revealed that a number of organisms, both vertebrata and invertebrates, absorb microplastic. Microparticles of plastic have a wide range of dimensional groups and low density; therefore, a lot of live organisms perceive them as a source of food. As plastic does not decay by their enzymatic system, its ingestion poses a threat for the organisms and can lead to their death. Researches show that for the last forty years the pollution of the World Ocean with plastic reached such scales that this material began to get not only into the food of sea inhabitants, but also into the food of people.
The problem of the sea garbage acquires special relevance among a number of the environmental problems caused by the consumer orientation of exploitation of the environ-ment. Russia is not an exception. Researches of content of microplastic in the marine environment are conducted in the Russian Federation since 2005 in the South of the Far East, in the water areas of the Amur, Ussuriysk gulfs and Peter the Great Bay (the Sea of Japan), in the Baltic Sea and on Baikal. However, the organization of the solution of the problem of the sea garbage and processing of plastic in Russia is at the formation stage.

Kleschenkov A., Filatova T., Gerasyuk V. Hydrochemical Situation in the Tsimlyansk Reservoir According to the Results of Observations in 2011-2018 / annotation

Alexey V. Kleschenkov – Leading Research Fellow, Ph.D. in Geography, Federal Research Center the Southern Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Tatyana B. Filatova – Research Fellow, Federal Research Center the Southern Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Viktoriya S. Gerasyuk – Junior Research Fellow, Federal Research Center the Southern Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

Tsimlyansk Reservoir is the largest reservoir of the Rostov region and southern Russia. The main factors for the formation of the hydrochemical regime of the Tsimlyansk Reservoir are the chemical composition of the water entering the river runoff and its mixing with the water accumulated in the reservoir. The chemical composition of the surface waters of the Don River basin is characterized by great diversity, which is associated with anthropogenic factors and the difference in the physiographic conditions in which the formation of surface waters takes place. The main sources of pollution of the Don River surface waters are wastewater enterprises of housing and communal services, chemical, petrochemical, metallurgical, agricultural and other industries, shipping and small fleet. The catchment area of the Don is located in the zone of insufficient moisture, which explains the cause of low-flow. The environmental situation in the Don basin, and especially on the Lower Don, is characterized as stressful, and when low-flow years and periods occur in the basin, there may be water shortages that manifest themselves not only in the lack of water of the required quality to meet the needs of the population and economy, but also in the impossibility preservation of necessary conditions for the existence of aquatic and riparian ecosystems. In this regard, the complex study of the hydrological and hydrochemical and hydrobiological conditions in the Tsimlyansk reservoir is becoming increasingly important. The purpose of the research was to study the current hydrochemical state of the Tsimlyansk reservoir, assess the dynamics of changes in the hydrochemical situation in the water column over the period from November 2011 to September 2018, and indirectly estimate the productivity of the Tsimlyansky reservoir water by chlorophyll "a". The published data were analyzed and compared with the results of our own research. The values of the N: P ratio during the observation period, in most cases, indicated the limitation of the primary production by nitrogen. The longterm dynamics of the content of the determined parameters under different water conditions did not have pronounced tendencies; in general, the concentrations of nutrients in all field research are comparable, subject to seasonal fluctuations, are in accordance with natural mechanisms and under anthropogenic influence.

Don State Technical University
Tbilisi State University
Moldavian association of international law
DANUBIUS University
Varna Free University 'Chernorizets Hrabar'