ISSN 2414-1143

NEW ISSUE

CONTENTS
2019. N 3

Social and Cultural-Historical Research of the North Caucasus
(theory and history of culture)

Goncharov V., Kolosova O. Ethnocultural Aspect of the Study of the Social Sphere as the Basis of Human Life / annotation

Vadim N. Goncharov – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, North-Caucasus Federal University, Stavropol, Russian Federation.
Olga Y. Kolosova – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Krasnodar University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Stavropol branch, Stavropol, Russian Federation.

The whole culture of the ethnos: material, directly related to life support, social and spiritual, is determined, organized, structured under the influence of the strategy of its life. The livelihood structure of an ethnos consists of a complex of necessary components. One of them is the culture of life support, which includes both rational and irrational elements, specific elements of ideology. A superficial attitude to the traditional way of running of the household leads not only to the degradation of the environment, but most of all to a change in certain, essential features of ethnic consciousness, which has been formed over the centuries. Ignoring the culture of livelihood in the most negative way affects the development of ethnic groups, undermines the foundations of their existence. Culture is a set of behavioral models that a person assimilates in the process of socialization and the adoption of his cultural role. Culture contains such behavioral patterns, following which makes it possible to most rationally use the available geographic and climatic conditions. These behavioral models are passed down from generation to generation in the process of socialization and are the main mechanism by which human groups adapt to the environment. A person lives not just in a social, but also in an ethnic environment. Ethnicity functions due to the fact that it develops a certain system of socialization of its members, in the framework of which the production and transmission of culture, the formation of the young generation in its image and likeness take place.

Key words: culture, ethnos, ethnic consciousness, cultural tradition, ethnocultural environment, socialization, social institutions

Dzhioev A. The Employment Impact on the Region External Migration / annotation

Alexander V. Dzhioev – Junior Research Fellow, Laboratory of Applied Sociology and Conflictology, Vladikavkaz Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladikavkaz, Russian Federation.

Migration processes play a significant role in the socio-economic and demographic development of Russia. Over the past 20 years, the migration increase in the country`s population has largely compensated for more than half of the natural decline in the population of the Russian Federation. However, in addition to external migration, internal migration has also become a subject of close attention – population movements between regions of the country, which is associated with its growing influence on the possibilities for the development of the population not only in individual settlements and cities, but also entire regions. Thus, in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, during the Soviet period, migration did not have any significant effect on the demographic situation. But with the collapse of the USSR, migration processes dramatically intensified. The development of negative trends in the demographic sphere of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, observed in the period 1992-2008 were caused by factors of interethnic instability, threats of terrorist acts and military actions in the Chechen Republic and the near abroad. By 2012, these factors were, in principle, leveled, but the flow of people leaving the region did not stop, which actualizes studies of other factors leading to the migration of the population of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania to other regions. It is considered that migration processes are a characteristic of population mobility, reflecting its ability and readiness to change social status, professional affiliation and place of residence. Migration processes characterizing labor mobility of the population are caused by the needs of economy in the work of a certain content and also by the ability and readiness of the personality to changes in the essential characteristics of work. At the same time, the situation on the national, regional or local labor market is a factor affecting the parameters, nature and direction of migration. The article shows that the main reason for the negative migration processes in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania in recent years has been the unfavorable situation in the labor market and growing unemployment among educated youth.

Key words: main characteristics of the labor market, rating of regions in terms of employment and unemployment, external region migration

Ilyasovа R. Language Personality in the Conditions of the Chechen-Russian Bilingualism / annotation

Raisa S. Ilyasovа – Ph.D. in Philology, Associate Professor, Chechen State University, Grozny, Russian Federation.

Migration processes play a significant role in the socio-economic and demographic development of Russia. Over the past 20 years, the migration increase in the country`s population has largely compensated for more than half of the natural decline in the population of the Russian Federation. However, in addition to external migration, internal migration has also become a subject of close attention – population movements between regions of the country, which is associated with its growing influence on the possibilities for the development of the population not only in individual settlements and cities, but also entire regions. Thus, in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, during the Soviet period, migration did not have any significant effect on the demographic situation. But with the collapse of the USSR, migration processes dramatically intensified. The development of negative trends in the demographic sphere of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania, observed in the period 1992-2008 were caused by factors of interethnic instability, threats of terrorist acts and military actions in the Chechen Republic and the near abroad. By 2012, these factors were, in principle, leveled, but the flow of people leaving the region did not stop, which actualizes studies of other factors leading to the migration of the population of the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania to other regions. It is considered that migration processes are a characteristic of population mobility, reflecting its ability and readiness to change social status, professional affiliation and place of residence. Migration processes characterizing labor mobility of the population are caused by the needs of economy in the work of a certain content and also by the ability and readiness of the personality to changes in the essential characteristics of work. At the same time, the situation on the national, regional or local labor market is a factor affecting the parameters, nature and direction of migration. The article shows that the main reason for the negative migration processes in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania in recent years has been the unfavorable situation in the labor market and growing unemployment among educated youth.

Key words: main characteristics of the labor market, rating of regions in terms of employment and unemployment, external region migration

Enkashev Z. The Social Adaptation of Youth and Ways for its Realization in the Chechen Republic / annotation

Zaur I. Enkashev – Ph.D. student, Law department, Chechen State University, Grozny, Russian Federation.

Social adaptive mechanisms used in working with young people in the Chechen Republic are examined and analyzed. The history of the formation as well as development of the concepts of "social adaptation" and "social work" is investigated. A comparison of various views and ideas is carried out regarding the possible types of mechanisms of interaction between the individual and the social environment. This topic is relevant among such scientific disciplines as social work, sociology, political science and psychology. By substantiating and comparing various social methods and programs used in the youth policy of the Chechen Republic, fundamental arguments are given on their influence on the formation and development of the modern youth environment of the Chechen Republic. The main focus of the article is on the specifics of clarifying the essence of the fundamental and basic concepts from a single concept of spiritual and moral education and the development of the younger generation of the Chechen Republic.

Key words: social adaptation, development, adaptive processes, spiritual and moral development, youth, environment, society, individual, person, the Chechen Republic, youth policy, social work, innovative technologies, patriotism, state

Nemashkalov P. Establishment of New Monasteries on "the Caucasian Line" of the Russian Empire in the Middle of the 19th Century: on the Example of Mary Magdalene Convent / annotation

Pavel G. Nemashkalov – Ph.D. in History, Associate Professor, Stavropol State Teacher`s Institute, Stavropol, Russian Federation.

In the territory of the North Caucasus there was the Caucasian War for decades. That`s why the Caucasian line was populated by natives not only of different parts of the empire, but it also became a shelter for representatives of other peoples and states. As a result, the language and religious differentiation in the region was quite notable that could not but lead to maintaining ethnic consciousness. The crisis public phenomena found the reflection in the religious sphere. Having become "warm Siberia", it involved to its territories a large number of representatives of split and various sects which could feel more freely here, than in the central provinces of the empire. Realizing the current situation, for the purpose of overcoming the cultural dissociation and inclusions of new territories into the uniform system of the public relations, the government undertook a number of measures among which there was a creation of the independent Caucasian and Black Sea diocese in 1843. After the deep church crisis in which there were many parishes of the North Caucasus and with the formation of the independent diocese, the religiousness of the population increased. It also found reflection in the development of monastic activity through the restoration of old monasteries and institution of new. The convent of Mary Magdalene became one of such "phenomena" in the North Caucasus. It didn`t find broad support in the Cossack region at once, but having received the help from the diocesan and army power, it could not only overcome and break the approved stereotypes in consciousness of the population concerning the position of the woman in the society, but also promoted the approval of Orthodox faith and church authority in the environment of the motley population of the region. In many respects these processes formed a basis of the arisen contradictions with army board and they did not find support in organs of supreme authority, however, there was no other way of overcoming the developed contradictions. One of the conditions of establishment of Mary Magdalene Convent was its construction exclusive on means received in the form of donations and alms, and also income from own agricultural and work activity. The construction of the convent was supposed to be conducted on these means, without taking in attention that the convent was forced to keep the staff of sisters, novices and workers, pilgrims and sufferers. Overcoming all economic difficulties, the convent promoted the growth of the authority of Orthodox faith and restoration of the church order in the North Caucasus.

Key words: History of the Russian Orthodox Church, Northern Caucasus, the Black Sea Mary Magdalene convent

(modern problems of ecology and nature management)

Evstropov V., Trushkova E., Nikhayeva A. The Environment Recent Research Questions of Ecological Aspects of the Interaction of the Organism and the Environment / annotation

Vladimir M. Evstropov – M. D., Associate Professor, Professor, Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Ekaterina A. Trushkova – Ph.D. in Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Alena V. Nikhayeva – Ph.D. in Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

For a single organism, the characteristics of levels of organization of living matter are the following: moleculargene, supramolecular, cellular, tissular, and organ ones. Organismic, population-species, and biocenotic levels of organization of living matter are characteristic of a set of organisms. Organisms can also act as an environmental factor. Nanobacteria, widely distributed in environmental compartments (in particular in water), can initiate various diseases in humans and are a new environmental factor (a bioindicator of ecological problems in the environment). The presence of organisms of some other species (staphylo-cocci, salmonella, ETEC) in surface waters has also unfavorable nature and is a criterion of sanitary-hygienic assessment of the epidemic hazard of these waters, testifying to the unfavorable environmental situation. Moreover, vice versa, organisms (biota) can clean and heal water bodies thanks to the processes of phytoremediation, bioremediation and zoore-mediation. The environment is considered as a complex of natural bodies and phenomena with which the body is in direct or indirect relationships, as part of nature, surrounding a living organism and having a direct or indirect effect on its state and functioning (growth, development, survival, reproduction, etc.) The habitat is a combination of objects, phenomena and environmental factors that determines the living conditions of living creatures, natural conditions in all the same habitats. According to the qualitative specificity of the complexes of conditions providing an opportunity for life, they distinguish living environments mastered by living organisms: water, land (air-ground living environment), soil and organism (for parasites and symbionts). Moreover, organisms exist in one or more environments of life. Organisms living in the internal environment of the host organism (blood, lymph, tissue) underwent significant adaptation and protective modifications: co-adaptation of the parasite and the host, symbionts to each other, the formation of the parasite`s protection against digestion by the host and the system of local fixation in the environment, strengthening sexual reproduction, reduction of vision and digestive system, synchronization of biorhythms with biorhythms of the host organism. There are two strategies for the development of living creatures: the r-strategy, which implies rapid reproduction and short life, and the k-strategy, which is characterized by a low rate of reproduction and long life. In accordance with the r-strategy, the population develops in adverse environmental conditions, but the frequent generational changes that occur at the same time contribute to the consolidation of useful mutations that allow the most successful resistance to adverse effects.

Key words: ecology, organism, environment, environmental factor, adaptation

Kleschenkov A., Filatova T., Gerasyuk V. Hydrochemical Situation in the Tsimlyansk Reservoir According to the Results of Observations in 2011-2018 / annotation

Alexey V. Kleschenkov – Leading Research Fellow, Ph.D. in Geography, Federal Research Center the Southern Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Tatyana B. Filatova – Research Fellow, Federal Research Center the Southern Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.
Viktoriya S. Gerasyuk – Junior Research Fellow, Federal Research Center the Southern Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

Tsimlyansk Reservoir is the largest reservoir of the Rostov region and southern Russia. The main factors for the formation of the hydrochemical regime of the Tsimlyansk Reservoir are the chemical composition of the water entering the river runoff and its mixing with the water accumulated in the reservoir. The chemical composition of the surface waters of the Don River basin is characterized by great diversity, which is associated with anthropogenic factors and the difference in the physiographic conditions in which the formation of surface waters takes place. The main sources of pollution of the Don River surface waters are wastewater enterprises of housing and communal services, chemical, petrochemical, metallurgical, agricultural and other industries, shipping and small fleet. The catchment area of the Don is located in the zone of insufficient moisture, which explains the cause of low-flow. The environmental situation in the Don basin, and especially on the Lower Don, is characterized as stressful, and when low-flow years and periods occur in the basin, there may be water shortages that manifest themselves not only in the lack of water of the required quality to meet the needs of the population and economy, but also in the impossibility preservation of necessary conditions for the existence of aquatic and riparian ecosystems. In this regard, the complex study of the hydrological and hydrochemical and hydrobiological conditions in the Tsimlyansk reservoir is becoming increasingly important. The purpose of the research was to study the current hydrochemical state of the Tsimlyansk reservoir, assess the dynamics of changes in the hydrochemical situation in the water column over the period from November 2011 to September 2018, and indirectly estimate the productivity of the Tsimlyansky reservoir water by chlorophyll "a". The published data were analyzed and compared with the results of our own research. The values of the N: P ratio during the observation period, in most cases, indicated the limitation of the primary production by nitrogen. The longterm dynamics of the content of the determined parameters under different water conditions did not have pronounced tendencies; in general, the concentrations of nutrients in all field research are comparable, subject to seasonal fluctuations, are in accordance with natural mechanisms and under anthropogenic influence.

Key words: Tsimlyansk Reservoir, hydrochemical regime, nutrients, productivity, chlorophyll a

HERITAGE OF THE PAST: CAUCASUS STUDY

Chernous V. The Genesis of Caucasian Mountain Civilization / annotation

Victor V. Chernous (1949-2018) – Ph.D. in Politics, Professor, South Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation

Avdulov N. Caucasology / annotation

Nikolai S. Avdulov (1932-2019) – Ph.D. in History, Professor, Senior Research Fellow of the North Caucasus Higher School Research Center of the Institute of Philosophy and Socio-Political Sciences of the South Federal University, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation.

Don State Technical University
Tbilisi State University
Moldavian association of international law
DANUBIUS University
Varna Free University 'Chernorizets Hrabar'